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After breaking through these institutional barriers, China’s professional fire protection finally came into being

On the morning of October 9, the handover ceremony of the public security fire forces to the emergency management department was officially held. Since the institutional reform plan of the State Council was announced in March this year, after more than half a year’s transitional period, China’s 53 year history of active fire service has come to an end

the reporter noticed that this fire fighting force was originally under the management of the public security department and listed in the armed police force sequence. After retirement and system transformation, it means that China’s fire professional reform has been implemented< According to the data, after the founding of new China, China's fire forces belong to the public security fire police force. Until 1965, the fire service system began to implement. 1n May of that year, compulsory military service was carried out under the team leader (monitor) of the national fire police. After the system transformation, the history of China's fire service system is fixed at 53 years the latest round of institutional reform plan of the State Council was announced at the national two sessions in 2018, which made it clear that the public security fire forces will no longer be listed in the armed police force sequence, and all of them will withdraw from active service. After the public security fire forces are transferred to local areas, the active service establishment will be changed into administrative establishment, which will be incorporated into the emergency management department to undertake fire fighting and other emergency rescue work, and give full play to the role of the main force of emergency rescue and the national team after 7 months of transitional adjustment, the above reform plan has been implemented. 1t is found that the fire department under the newly established emergency management department still adopts the management system of director and political commissar. During the 7-month transition period, four deputy directors and one deputy political commissar of the Bureau successively appeared, including qiongse, Luo Yongqiang, Zhang Fusheng, Wei Handong and Zhan Shouwang. All the above five deputy leaders had previously worked in the former Fire Department of the Ministry of public security< The reporter pointed out that the implementation of the active service fire protection system not only saves money, but also ensures the younger team, which can be said to be more than one stone. However, 53 years later, the disadvantages of the fire fighting system in active service are frequent the system of active service means “soldiers of iron barracks and flowing water”. The soldiers finally grow up to be qualified firefighters in the first half of their service, but they will retire and leave the front line of fire fighting in a twinkling of an eye. Limited by the military service system, it is difficult for the backbone of fire fighting to work in the front line for a long time. Many foreign developed countries mostly adopt the professional fire protection system. For firefighters, fire protection is a life-long occupation, and their fire protection experience can be accumulated and inherited it’s true that we can’t underestimate our fire fighting experience. 1n modern society, fire fighting work, experience and professional knowledge may be more important than “desperate” in the fire in Tianjin port in 2015, some firefighters without professional knowledge still used the traditional method of “putting out the fire with water”, which did not work, but put themselves in danger at that time, CCTV connected yuan Hongyong, President of the 1nstitute of public safety of Tsinghua University and member of the expert committee of China Fire Protection Association, in the program. He suggested that the Fire Department of the Ministry of public security should be independent and enjoy the treatment according to the civil servants, so that the firefighters could work all their lives and accumulate experience in the process of fighting fires for many times< 1n March, after the announcement of the State Council's institutional reform plan, the future of China's fire protection work has aroused great public discussion. 1n July this year, the government gave the reform direction of the fire forces after they retired from active service. The answer is not surprising, that is, to build professional fire forces in line with international standards< On July 12, the second ARF urban emergency rescue seminar closed in Nanning, Guangxi. At the closing ceremony, Wei Handong, deputy director of the Fire Department of the emergency management department, said bluntly: "after the reform and transfer of the fire forces, the original active service system has been transformed into a more professional and professional development, which is in line with international standards and the general trend of the development of the fire cause." 1n addition, he also revealed that in addition to the original disaster relief work, we need to create a number of secret service teams, attack teams and professional teams to meet the needs of various complex special disaster relief Why did the previous professionalization pilot fail in fact, there has always been a debate in the industry about which is better between active fire fighting and professional fire fighting. The reporter learned that professional fire protection is not “all benefits but no harm” at present, there are mainly two ways of fire professional reform in the world: the fire work is “outsourced” to enterprises. At the same time, the public service attribute of fire protection will also be reduced, and market-oriented charges are needed to turn the public security fire service into “professional” civil servants let’s take a look at the first way, How to price and supervise market-oriented charges will become a difficult problem to implement. Moreover, even if the pricing problem is solved from a technical point of view, whether the people can accept paid fire fighting is also a big challenge. 1n fact, the measures for the implementation of fire safety responsibility system issued at the end of last year has clearly defined the public welfare attribute of government full-time fire brigade. At the spring and summer fire prevention and control work scheduling meeting held in May this year, qiongse and Luo Yongqiang, deputy directors of the fire bureau, pointed out that the above measures should be taken as a basic and long-term work. This means that the public welfare attribute of the fire brigade clearly stated in the measures last year has not been shaken by the institutional reform started this year let’s look at the second way. 1n fact, China has not tried the professionalization of civil servants from 1984 to 2009, Shenzhen took the lead in implementing the pilot reform of fire professional, and established the first professional fire brigade of civil servants in the mainland. However, due to the local financial burden of fire control funds, the local financial pressure increases. 1n addition, the dedication and work enthusiasm of the “professional” firefighters of civil servants can not be guaranteed. Some dangerous tasks, and even the deployment of active duty firefighters from other places to carry out emergency situations therefore, the lack of honor and dedication of firefighters under the professional fire protection system has become the main concern of the supporters of active fire protection< As mentioned above, the problem of firefighters' lack of sense of honor under the professional fire protection system has been solved “Regulations on the title of fire rescue personnel for comprehensive fire rescue teams (Draft)” has been submitted to the fifth meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress for deliberation recently. At present, the consultation session of the draft has ended. 1n the first chapter of the draft, the purpose of conferring titles is clearly pointed out: in order to strengthen the standardization, specialization and professionalism of the national comprehensive fire rescue team, enhance the sense of responsibility, honor and organization discipline of the fire rescue personnel, and facilitate the command, management and legal performance of the national comprehensive fire rescue team, experts believe that, The implementation of fire rescue title system is conducive to distinguish the rank identity of personnel and ensure the establishment of a unified and efficient leadership and command system. The intensity of fire rescue work is high and the occupational risk is high. The implementation of fire rescue title system is conducive to enhancing the sense of responsibility, honor and mission of the fire rescue team and ensuring the combat effectiveness of the team according to the draft, the title of fire rescue personnel is the title and symbol to distinguish the level of fire rescue personnel and indicate the identity of fire rescue personnel. 1t is an honor given by the state to fire rescue personnel. Fire rescue ranks shall be set according to management and command cadres, professional and technical cadres and firefighters; The title of fire rescue for management and command cadres is divided into three grades and eleven grades, that for professional and technical cadres is divided into two grades and eight grades, and that for firefighters is divided into three grades and eight grades; Fire rescue personnel shall be assigned fire rescue titles according to their job levels it is worth mentioning that the implementation object of the fire rescue rank system is the national comprehensive fire rescue team, which is not only limited to firefighters, but also includes the transformed armed police forest forces and emergency rescue teams for work safety. According to the draft, the newly established emergency management department is in charge of fire rescue work the public security department will no longer “supervise itself” after the transfer of the fire force, the public security department may no longer be responsible for fire-fighting related affairs. This is not the case. 1t is found that institutional reform plays an important role in straightening out the management system in May this year, Qiong se, deputy director of the fire bureau, and Luo Yongqiang co hosted a video scheduling meeting on the re mobilization and re deployment of fire prevention and control work in spring and summer. The meeting pointed out that we should pay close attention to “villages in the city” and other regional places, and requested the public security organs to urge the grass-roots police stations to earnestly perform their fire supervision duties. 1t is not difficult to see that the public security organs are not no longer involved in the field of fire protection, but they have become the role of regulators in the measures for the implementation of the fire safety responsibility system issued by the State Council in October 2017, the reporter found an authoritative explanation: the measures make it clear that local people’s governments at all levels are responsible for the fire control work in their own administrative areas, At the above meeting, qiongse and Luo Yongqiang also mentioned the implementation measures and pointed out that all localities should take the implementation measures of fire safety responsibility system as a basic and long-term work. This means that the document issued last year is not invalid because of the institutional reform and the transformation of the fire forces. On the contrary, it should be “grasped to the end” by contrast, when the fire forces are transferred from the public security department to the emergency management department, the public security department retains the responsibility of fire supervision, avoiding the embarrassment of “self supervision” the two units converted to the police force are still “not moving according to the soldiers” the reporter has paid attention to the reform of the armed police force more than once, and the reform of the fire force is also completed under the background of the reform of the armed police force. 1n addition to the transfer of the fire forces, the State Council’s institutional reform plan also makes it clear that the public security frontier forces will no longer be listed in the armed police force sequence, and all of them will be discharged from active service. After the public security frontier forces are transferred to local areas, they are organized into public security organs, and the active service establishment is all transferred to the people’s police establishment the public security forces are no longer listed in the armed police force sequence, and all of them are discharged from active service. After the public security forces are transferred to local areas, the active service establishment is completely converted to the people’s police establishment after the golden armed police force was converted into a non active professional team, it was incorporated into the Ministry of natural resources, and the active establishment was converted into a financial subsidy establishment after the forest force of the armed police force is transformed into a non active professional team, it is incorporated into the emergency management department, and the active establishment is transformed into an administrative establishment after the hydropower units of the armed police force are converted into non active professional teams, they can continue to use the name of China anergy Construction Corporation and be managed by the state owned assets supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council Open