PPE

Air stealth killer: the means of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear protection in the Asia Pacific Region

Andy Oppenheimer’s article “something in the air: CBRN protection in the Asia Pacific” was published in the 4TH-5TH issue of Thailand’s “Asian military review” in 2014. This paper introduces the threat of CBRN in the Asia Pacific region and the latest development of personal protective equipment and chemical warfare agent detection technology in the world. The article is compiled as follows:

the original chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats in the Asia Pacific region came from North Korea, not only from its nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, but also from its chemical weapons stockpile. 1t is believed that North Korea’s chemical weapons stockpile can rival Syria

apart from North Korea, Pakistan and 1ndia, as nuclear states, are facing nuclear and radiological attacks by non-state actors. For example, Pakistan has been repeatedly attacked by suicide bombers carried out by 1slamic rebel groups; 1ndia faces a serious threat from Pakistan’s 1slamist paramilitary group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, which used grenades and AK-47 submachine guns to carry out a terrorist attack on Mumbai in 2008. As 1ndia’s economy grows and more large-scale industrial parks and facilities are being built, it is likely that the rebels will start to launch worrying dangerous goods attacks on important infrastructure, such as railway stations, airports and chemical and biotechnology industries< However, the most serious chemical, biological and nuclear events in modern times were not caused by war or terrorism, but by natural disasters. On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and tsunami occurred in the east of northeast Honshu 1sland, Japan. The earthquake and tsunami caused the core of the reactor of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the east coast of Honshu island to melt down and explode. Therefore, some governments in the Asia Pacific region are turning to purchase multi-functional biological and radiological protection products to deal with various threats caused by deliberate attacks and accidents. Accidents that produce large doses of radioactive pollutants, such as the Fukushima incident discussed above, have led to a shortage of radiation protection products. The radiation risk also comes from the theft or random disposal of radioactive materials in many countries, and the civilian radioactive materials in many countries are often dumped and discarded at will. On Decembe2, 2013, in tepojaco, near Mexico City, thieves hijacked a truck loaded with cobalt-60 particles from obsolete medical radiotherapy equipment. When the truck was hijacked, it was preparing to transport these dangerous radioactive materials to the nuclear waste disposal site. The cobalt-60 particles were recovered two days later. The shield had been partially removed. The thieves were detained and hospitalized. Two of them were suspected of radiation damage in the earthquake and tsunami disaster, the reactor cores of three of the six reactors in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were destroyed, and the firefighters undertook the most important disaster mitigation action to deal with the reactors with the three reactor cores destroyed without fully protecting themselves from the lethal gamma ray radiation. There is no plan to clean up. Radioactive water has leaked to the Pacific Ocean. 1n late November 2013, in an attempt to restore safety, the workers of the power plant successfully removed the first nuclear fuel rod from the cooling pool of a power plant. 1n this four-day highly dangerous operation, the workers have been facing high levels of radiation strengthen protection gamma ray radiation may lead to acute radiation syndrome (ARS) – destruction of human bone marrow. This can lead to anemia, infection, visceral bleeding, and often death. Alpha rays from nuclear explosions and accidents may have long-term effects on human health, such as cancer. 1n addition, leukemia is the most noteworthy disease. This disease is difficult to detect and prove the causal relationship between the two, because it is a global disease like cancer. Because the appearance of clinical symptoms of patients is often delayed, and it is difficult to measure the radiation dose to individuals, emergency rescue workers, nuclear power plant workers and people who may be affected by nuclear accidents need special protection. 1n order to ensure that the people in the accident are treated, it is essential to measure the amount of radiation, because many civilians will worry about their exposure to radiation< At present, Geiger counters and electronic dosimeters used to measure ionizing radiation are only used to determine who was contaminated by radioactive materials in the event of a nuclear disaster, rather than to determine the exact radiation dose to each person. At present, instruments have been developed to detect the total absorbed dose of a single person. This kind of high-throughput radiation detection system is from the biological advanced research and Development Authority (BARDA), Six projects funded by the US Department of Health (a subsidiary of the US Department of Health) and the European Union's multibiodose project aim to achieve the target of 2000 samples per day for each system by using the technology currently used in commercial clinical laboratories. Biodosimetry is a method of using biomaterials to test the ionizing radiation dose to an individual. 1t is very useful when there is no physical dosimetry or the reading of the physical dosimeter is controversial the radiation exposure dose index diagnostic (red1 DX) blood test kit produced by dxterty diagnostics, a California based company, is the first commercial gene expression kit used for radiation biological dose test. The operation of radiation dose index diagnosis is very simple. The finger of the tester is punctured and blood is taken. The tester can also use the finger blood collected in the early stage, which can reduce the number of skilled nurses or doctors needed for blood test. 1t adopts a unique sample collection method, which allows blood samples to be stored and transported at ambient temperature, thus reducing the logistics cost and burden required to ensure blood sample refrigeration. 1t can provide radiation dose estimation in the laboratory within 48 hours, which will ensure that thousands of such tests are completed every week, so that radiation dose index diagnosis can support mass scale emergencies risk reduction enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE) is constantly emerging. For example, the 360 gamma ray wearable personal protective equipment produced by stemrad company in 1srael can halve the lethal radiation dose above 1000 rad. Usually, radiation doses over 1000 rads are lethal. Shielding has been shown to block high-energy gamma rays and keep the wearer at a safe dose for the protective equipment needed during the Fukushima clean-up period, radiation shield technologies (RST) of Florida, USA has provided the whole body chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear protective clothing. RST has been selected as the supplier of personal protective equipment. This protective clothing has received multiple certifications in the comprehensive protection of gamma radiation, And through passive cooling for the wearer, it can significantly reduce heat stress. These protective clothing are made of a breakthrough nano metal material called “Demron” fabric. Ronald DeMeo, the inventor of Demron fabric, saw on TV that workers in Japanese factories were short of personal protective equipment, So he donated 200 sets of protective clothing produced by radiation shielding technology company to the workers and rescue team of the nuclear power plant” The “Demron” protective suit, which weighs only 5 kg (10 pounds), is said to block 50% of gamma radiation and 70% of beta radiation. This is enough to protect people working in polluted areas< 1t is estimated that at least 3000 people, including many emergency rescue workers, will die of respiratory diseases in the next few years as a result of evacuation through areas contaminated by toxic chemicals and smoke. 1f after the attack, the World Trade Center building in New York has been equipped with escape breathing apparatus, many workers may not be killed. The U.S. government now needs to prepare breathing apparatus for all personnel working in major government buildings and embassies abroad. For the emergency departments in Singapore and other Asia Pacific countries, MSA, headquartered in the United States, has produced self-contained 5-minute escape respirators (transaire5) and 10 minute escape respirators (transaire10), which are good choices. These escape respirators are light, simple and easy to use, and can protect emergency rescue personnel in high concentration of toxic gases< However, as the current civilian escape respirators are too bulky, the technical support working group (tswg), which is responsible for purchasing and signing anti-terrorism technology contracts for all U.S. government departments and departments that formulate anti-terrorism measures and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear countermeasures, Under the leadership of the United States Department of state's anti terrorism coordination office, scientific protection Scotland of the United Kingdom was selected to develop compact and ultra-thin escape hoods. This new type of escape hood weighs only half of the traditional gas mask or cigarette hood, and can be put into the coat pocket or handbag, and can be worn immediately in case of emergency. These escape hoods meet the requirements of users of U.S. government agencies and meet the EU standards for chemical, biological, and radiological protection, and are suitable for short-term escape operations in contaminated areas. For civil escape hoods, mesian company has produced a safe escape CBRN respirator, which is suitable for all S-CAP smoke proof escape hoods and can prevent smoke and gas generated in fire, especially carbon monoxide. High performance filters provide comprehensive protection, while wide-angle lenses provide a good view South Korea the US military stationed in South Korea is equipped with a new M50 joint service general purpose mask (jsgpm), which is the result of more than 15 years of research and development work of the US Army’s Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC). Bill Fritch, joint service general gas mask project manager, said: “compared with the previous generation of gas masks, the new gas masks provided to combat personnel have improved in comfort, visibility, hydration and anything you can think of.” Compared with the previous models, it is said that the joint service universal gas mask provides a more humanized design, including increased optical clarity, comfort and ease of use in high pressure and severe environment. At the same time, it also reduces the difficulty of providing weapons and military equipment. 1n January 2014, the Washington government decided to deploy more soldiers and tanks in South Korea, which is an integral part of the U.S. military rebalancing in the Asia Pacific region. Since then, South Korea has agreed to pay $867 million as military expenditure for 28500 U.S. troops stationed in South Korea in 2014

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