Common labor protection articles and common sense

1. Head protective equipment and its common sense of use

head protective equipment is personal protective equipment that is equipped to protect the head from the attack of foreign objects and other factors. According to the protection function requirements, there are nine kinds of products, including general protective cap, dust cap, waterproof cap, cold cap, safety cap, anti-static cap, anti high temperature cap, anti electromagnetic radiation cap and anti insect cap

in industrial injury and traffic accidents, head injury is the most common cause of death, accounting for 35.5% of the total number of deaths, among which falling objects are the most common cause, followed by traffic accidents. The safety helmet can avoid or reduce the above injuries< (1) the type of safety helmet is safety helmet, which can protect human head from external force injury. 1t is composed of cap shell, cap liner, chin strap, rear hoop, etc. Safety helmets are divided into six categories: general type, riding type, special safety helmets, military helmets, military protective helmets and protective helmets for athletes. Among them, the general-purpose and special safety helmets belong to labor protection articles 1. General safety helmet there are two kinds of hats that only prevent the top, both the top and the side impact. With puncture resistance, it is used in construction transportation and other industries. The universal safety helmet used in the place with fire source is flame resistant< (1) safety helmet for electric industry. Cap shell insulation performance is very good, electrical installation, high voltage operation and other industries use more< (2) anti static helmet. Antistatic agent is added in the cap shell and cap lining material, which is used in places with combustible gas or steam and other explosive materials. 1t refers to zone 0 and zone 1 specified in electrical safety regulations for explosive dangerous places, and the minimum ignition energy of combustible materials is above 0.2mj< (3) cold proof helmet. 1t has good low-temperature characteristics. 1t uses cotton cloth, fur and other thermal materials as fabrics, and can be used in the environment with the temperature not lower than - 20 ℃< (4) high temperature and radiation resistant safety helmet. 1t has good thermal stability and chemical stability, and can be used in fire fighting, smelting and other places with radiant heat source< (5) anti lateral pressure helmet. High mechanical strength, bending resistance, used in forestry, underground engineering, underground coal mining and other industries (6) safety helmet with accessories. Safety helmet with accessories to meet certain requirements< (2) the use of safety helmets according to the statistics of relevant departments, 15% of the injuries caused by falling objects are caused by improper use of safety helmets. So you can’t think that wearing a helmet can protect your head from impact injury. 1n practical work, we should also understand and achieve the following points: (1) anyone entering the production site or engaged in production and labor inside and outside the factory must wear safety helmet (except for those with special regulations of the state or industry); For special operation or labor, measures can be taken to ensure that the head of personnel will not be injured, except those approved by the safety supervision department) (2) when wearing safety helmet, the safety helmet belt must be fastened to ensure that it does not fall off under various states; The brim of the safety helmet must be consistent with the visual direction, and shall not be worn askew or askew (3) it is not allowed to disassemble the parts on the cap and adjust the size of the cap liner without permission, so as to keep the vertical and horizontal spacing in line with the relevant specified values, so as to prevent personal injury caused by touching the top after impact (4) it is strictly forbidden to put anything on the hat lining. 1t is strictly forbidden to change any mechanism of safety helmet at will. 1t is strictly forbidden to use safety helmet as utensils. 1t is forbidden to use safety helmet as cushion (5) the safety helmet must be provided with instructions, and the place of use must be indicated for the reasonable use of operators (6) always keep the cap liner clean. 1f it is not clean, wash it with soapy water and clean water. After use, it should not be placed in places with acid and alkali, high temperature, sunlight, humidity and chemical solvents (7) the safety helmet which has been greatly impacted in use can not be used any more (8) if the cap shell and cap liner are aged or damaged, which reduces the impact resistance and penetration resistance, they shall not be used any more, but shall be replaced with a new cap (9) the anti-static safety helmet can not be used as the safety helmet for electric industry, so as not to cause out of point (10) the plant helmet is valid for one and a half years from the time of purchase. Plastic cap shall not exceed two years, laminated cap and FRP cap for two and a half years, rubber cap and cold cap for three years, and safety helmet for three and a half years. All kinds of safety helmets above are easy to be aged and lose the protective performance of safety helmets2. Respiratory protective equipment and its common sense of use respiratory protective equipment is a kind of protective equipment for preventing harmful gas, steam, dust, smoke and fog from being inhaled from respiratory tract, supplying oxygen or clean air directly to users, and ensuring normal breathing of operators in dust, poison pollution or hypoxia environment respiratory protective equipment mainly includes dust mask and gas mask (mask)< (1) in addition to dust, the workplace is also accompanied by toxic fog, smoke, gas, or when the oxygen content in the air is less than 18%, isolation type dust-proof appliances should be selected, and filter type dust-proof appliances are prohibited< (2) wet and drenching workplace. The selected dust-proof appliances shall be equipped with waterproof devices< (3) the dust-proof equipment with low suction resistance should be used in the work with high labor intensity. 1f possible, try to choose air supply mask or face mask (4) before use, check whether the parts are complete. 1f there is any damage, it must be sorted out or replaced in time. 1n addition, pay attention to check the air tightness of each joint, especially the air supply mask or mask, to see whether the joint and pipeline are smooth (5) wear correctly, adjust the tie and headband properly, and have no severe pressure on the face (6) the filter material of the helmet should be changed regularly to avoid increasing the resistance. The power supply of the electric air supply mask should be sufficient, and it should be charged on time (7) when the main body (nose mask) of various masks is dirty, it can be washed with soapy water. After washing, it should be dried in a well ventilated place. Do not expose to the sun or bake on fire. Avoid contacting with oil, organic solvents, etc< (8) the dust-proof equipment should be specially used. After use and in fashion plastic bags, avoid extrusion and damage (9) for the long tube mask, the leakage of the airway should be checked before use, and it can only be used when it is confirmed that there is no leak. The air inlet end of the air duct must be placed in a place with fresh air, non-toxic and dust-free. The length of airway should be less than 10 m to avoid increasing ventilation resistance. When moving the operation site, special attention should be paid not to pull or drag the air duct violently, and strictly prevent pressing, poking, dismantling, etc< (2) use of gas masks and masks gas masks and masks can be divided into filtration type and isolation type. The filter type anti-virus appliance is used to filter out the poisonous gas in the air through the poison filtering agent in the poison filtering tank and box, and then for people to breathe. Therefore, it can not be used when the oxygen content of air in the working environment is lower than 18%. Usually, the filtrating agent can only play a protective role in determining the type, concentration, air temperature and certain operation time of the poison. Therefore, the filter type gas mask and mask can not be used in operations with serious danger, complex and changeable site conditions and more than two kinds of poisons; The isolation type anti-virus appliance is to send the air in the non polluted environment into the closed anti-virus appliance for the operators to breathe through the gas transmission pipe. 1t is used in anoxic, unknown or high concentration polluted environment (1) when using the anti-virus mask, it is strictly forbidden to open the cover of the filter box to avoid violent vibration of the filter box, so as to avoid loosening the drug; At the same time, water and other liquid drops should be prevented from splashing on the filter box, otherwise the anti-virus efficiency will be reduced (2) in the process of using the anti-virus mask, when a slight smell is detected for the odorous poisonous gas, it indicates that the filtering agent in the filter box is effective. For odorless toxic gas, it depends on the discoloration of the indicator paper or reagent installed in the filter box. Once it is found that the anti-virus agent fails, you should leave the toxic place immediately, stop using the anti-virus mask, and replace the agent before use (3) when wearing a gas mask, the lacing should be adjusted according to the size of the head, and the two lacing should be naturally separated behind the top of the head. Too loose and too tight are easy to cause air leakage or feel uncomfortable (4) the gas mask should be worn correctly in use. For example, the head mask must be selected with appropriate specifications, and the edge of the mask body should be close to the head. 1n addition, it is necessary to keep the air in the mask smooth and unobstructed, so as to prevent the airway from bending and pressing, which will affect the ventilation (5) when an accident occurs at the operation site and toxic gas appears, the operator should hold his breath immediately, take out the mask quickly and put it on; When it is confirmed that the edge of the mask is close to the head or the mask is worn correctly, the mask can be put into normal use only when the residual gas in the mask is exhaled< (6) if a part of the gas mask is damaged and cannot function normally, and there is no time to replace the mask, the user can take the following emergency treatment methods, and then quickly leave the toxic place: â‘?when the hole is found in the hood or airway, the user can hold it by hand. 1f the airway is damaged, the canister can also be directly connected with the hood, but attention should be paid to prevent displacement and air leakage due to the weight gain of the hood â‘?when the expiratory valve is damaged, the air outlet should be immediately blocked by hand, and the hand should be relaxed when expiratory, and then blocked when inspiratory â‘?when small holes are found in the filter tank, it can be blocked by hand, clay or other materials (7) after use, the gas mask should be cleaned, disinfected and dried in the air after washing. Do not bake or expose to the sun to prevent material aging. After the filter tank is used, the top cover and bottom plug should be covered and plugged tightly to prevent the filter agent from being affected with damp. For the invalid filter tank, it should be scrapped or replaced with new filter agent and regenerated in time (8) for gas masks that are not used for a while, talcum powder should be evenly spread on the rubber parts to prevent adhesion. The spare masks on site shall be placed in the special cabinet, and shall be regularly maintained and moisture-proof< (3) use of oxygen respirator oxygen respirator is a kind of gas mask which is isolated from external air and supplies oxygen by itself. Attention should be paid during use: (1) before use, conduct a comprehensive inspection and confirm that the following requirements are met before use: â‘?the oxygen pressure in the oxygen cylinder should be kept above 980n / cm2 â‘?the calcium hydroxide absorbent filled in the cleaning tank should be pink cylindrical particles. 1f it turns light yellow, it is invalid and should be replaced in time â‘?attention should be paid to whether the sealing gaskets are complete, whether the meshing degree and valve are in good condition, whether the automatic exhaust valve works normally, and whether the manual oxygen supply is effective (2) when using, first open the valve of the oxygen cylinder, check the value of the pressure gauge, and estimate the use time. Then press the supply button several times to remove the original accumulated gas in the airbag. Then put on the hood and check the fit between the body edge and the head. After confirming that all parts are normal, they can be used (3) in the process of use, if you feel that the air supply is insufficient, you can use the deep breathing method to make the automatic replenisher oxygenate. 1f you still have difficulty breathing, you should use manual operation

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