Do you know how to prevent occupational poisoning?

Occupational poisoning is one of the most serious occupational diseases in China. 1n some industries, occupational poisoning tends to be concentrated, and mass occupational poisoning incidents occur from time to time

occupational poisoning not only threatens the safety and health of workers, but also affects economic development and social harmony

throughout the occupational poisoning cases around us, most of them are caused by the lack of basic knowledge of occupational health, weak protection awareness and inadequate protection measures. Therefore, the prevention of occupational poisoning is of great significance in the prevention and control of occupational diseases

this magazine specially launched the column of “pay attention to occupational safety and health”, which will continuously launch the relevant common sense written by the Ministry of labor protection of the all China Federation of trade unions, and pass on the common sense of safety production to the majority of migrant workers, so as to prevent the trouble and put them into work safely, healthily and happily

what is occupational poisoning

the poisoning caused by people’s exposure to chemical poisons in the production environment and labor process is called occupational poisoning. Short time exposure to high concentration poisons will lead to acute occupational poisoning; long term exposure to over standard and low concentration poisons will lead to chronic occupational poisoning. Chronic occupational poisoning has a wide range of hazards and long incubation period, which should be paid more attention to

the way of chemical poisons entering human body

chemical poisons mainly enter human body through respiratory tract, skin and digestive tract, and also cause irritation to skin, eyes and other mucous membranes

(1) respiratory tract: most occupational poisons enter the human body through the respiratory tract, then enter the blood, stay with the body fluid circulation and accumulate in the liver, brain, kidney and other organs

(2) skin: skin is the largest organ of the human body. Some poisons are absorbed by the skin and cause poisoning, such as organophosphorus pesticides, nitro compounds, etc., and some irritate or corrode the skin, such as contact with glass fiber, acid-base solution, etc

(3) digestive tract: poisoning can be caused by bringing poison into the digestive tract through contaminated hands or contaminated water cups and utensils, such as eating food or drinking water contaminated by lead and taking poison by mistake

the links that can contact with chemical poisons

chemical poisons may appear in the key links of production: (1) raw material mining and refining: dust can be formed in the mining process, such as manganese dust in manganese ore; steam can escape, such as mercury ore; large amount of steam or smoke can be produced in the smelting process, such as lead smelting

(2) material handling and storage: liquid materials enter human body through skin due to package penetration, such as amino and nitro compounds of benzene, and leakage of steel cylinder storing gaseous poison can enter human body through respiratory tract

(3) feeding: in the feeding process, solid raw materials can cause dust to fly, and liquid raw materials have vapor overflow or liquid splash

(4) chemical reaction: some chemical reactions, such as improper control or improper feeding, can lead to accidents, such as the reaction of heat generation or gas generation, which is too fast, can lead to boiler blowing or material flushing, so that the materials can be ejected from the reactor, toxic gas or steam can be released in the process of chemical reaction, and some can bring out harmful droplets at the same time

(5) industrial three wastes treatment: the waste gas, waste water and waste residue produced in industrial production contain a variety of toxic and harmful substances, such as carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, fluoride, mercury, beryllium, etc

(6) maintenance: in the process of pipeline and equipment maintenance, maintenance and container cleaning, there may be gas escaping, or liquid spilling and splashing to pollute hands or body surface

(7) others: for example, hydrogen sulfide will escape when entering the cellar, sewer, waste roadway under the mine or cleaning the septic tank< How to prevent occupational poisoning the employer should identify the types of poisons used or produced in the workplace, evaluate the exposure level of workers through on-site detection, and take comprehensive management measures: (1) engineering control measures: such as improving the production process, 1n order to reduce the chance for workers to contact with poisons, it is necessary to adopt non-toxic or low toxic substances instead of toxic substances, make the production mechanized, automatic and airtight as far as possible, and strengthen ventilation and detoxification< (2) management measures: formulate effective occupational poisoning prevention and management system, establish post operation procedures, and ensure the effective operation and use of on-site monitoring, engineering control facilities and personal protective equipment (3) strengthen personal protection: personal protective equipment can further reduce the hazard level, use reasonably, and reduce the hazard level or intensity below the level specified in the occupational health standard, which is an effective supplement to engineering control measures and the last line of defense< (4) health education should be strengthened, occupational health knowledge should be popularized, and operation procedures should be strictly enforced (5) do a good job of occupational health monitoring, carry out regular occupational health examination according to the national laws and regulations, find out health damage in the early stage, and timely transfer from the occupational taboo position< (6) elimination and control of environmental pollution, so that the discharge of toxic substances is lower than the national occupational health standards< According to the existing forms of poisons and the main ways of invading the human body, the personal protective equipment includes all kinds of respirators, safety glasses, goggles, protective screen, protective clothing, protective hat, protective gloves and daubing skin protective equipment if toxic substances enter the human body through the respiratory tract, respiratory protection must be taken; when the poison is absorbed through the skin, or when the hands directly contact the poison during the operation, skin protection should be considered, including the use of protective gloves and protective clothing; if the poison irritates the eyes, or the operation mode causes the poison splashing to the eyes and face, eye and face protection should be taken necessary sanitary facilities, such as lavatory equipment, shower room, changing room, etc., should be set up in the workplace where toxic substances are used. Skin and eye washing facilities should also be provided for toxic substances that can be absorbed by skin or have great local harm< (1) the employer shall identify the occupational hazards that may exist in the workplace, comprehensively assess the risks that the operators may be exposed to, and provide safe and effective personal protective equipment in accordance with the national regulations and standards (2) the personal protective equipment used by the operators should meet the national standards. For the special labor protection equipment, the safety mark certification of special labor protection equipment should be obtained, and the green La certification mark should be on the product package (3) the selected personal protective equipment must be suitable for the characteristics of users and the requirements of working environment, and provide the necessary comfort and convenience (4) when all kinds of personal protective equipment are used together, they should not interfere with each other (5) without the use of effective and suitable personal protective equipment, operators are strictly prohibited to enter the high hazard workplace for operation or rescue use and maintenance of personal protective equipment (1) carefully read the operation manual of personal protective equipment, understand the precautions and restrictions in the process of use and maintenance; if you have any questions, consult the occupational health and safety management personnel of the unit or the professional and technical personnel of the product production unit in time (2) strengthen daily learning and training, have a full understanding of the structure and precautions of various types of personal protective equipment, and strengthen the wearing practice to improve the correct wearing speed (3) it is very important for respirators such as face mask, half face mask and full face mask to fit the user’s face, and the employer should provide suitability test for the user (4) personal protective equipment should be worn before entering the harmful environment. For close fitting face mask, the user should check the air tightness first to confirm the close fitting< (5) personnel working in hazardous environment should always wear personal protective equipment correctly. When you feel uncomfortable symptoms such as peculiar smell, cough, irritation and nausea during the use of respiratory protective equipment, you should leave the harmful environment immediately and report to the safety management personnel for troubleshooting. 1f there is no fault, you should check the respiratory protective equipment and replace the effective filter components< (6) the protection time of filter boxes and tanks for toxic and harmful gases or vapors is limited. 1f they are not replaced in time, users will be exposed to excessive levels, which is very dangerous. 1t is not allowed to judge whether they are invalid by the smell or irritation. The service life should be determined according to the concentration of toxic and harmful gases, the temperature and humidity of the workplace, and the working intensity of workers, And establish replacement schedule, timely replacement< The common causes of acute occupational poisoning are as follows: (1) the workers are lack of occupational health and safety education and have poor protection awareness (2) the operators did not use personal protective equipment or used improper protective equipment< (3) there is no airtight ventilation and detoxification facilities in the workplace or the detoxification effect is not good (4) there are no safety operation regulations or the operators violate the safety operation regulations (5) the equipment runs, emits, drips or leaks, or the equipment fails, and the equipment is not maintained or overhauled (6) blind rescue and improper rescue when rescuers are not protected substances causing acute occupational poisoning acute occupational poisoning refers to the poisoning caused by a large number of poisons entering the human body once or within a short time to several hours in the process of production and labor there are many chemicals that directly lead to acute occupational poisoning, mainly hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, benzene and its homologues, metals and metalloids. The chemicals causing acute occupational poisoning in different industries are different< the posts prone to acute occupational poisoning acute occupational poisoning accidents are more common in chemical, manufacturing, water treatment, mining, construction and other industries, and the risk of cleaning, maintenance, production, mining, excavation and other posts is higher our website solemnly declares that this article is reprinted by network media, only representing the author’s point of view, and has nothing to do with our website. 1f the information column articles and comments violate your legal rights, please call to let us know and we will deal with them in time

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