Five principles of preventing accidents

From the perspective of safety, there are five principles to prevent accidents

1. The principle of possible prevention

industrial accidents are human disasters, different from natural disasters, human disasters can be prevented. 1n order to prevent accidents, we should take precautions. Therefore, we should not only consider the Countermeasures after the accident, but also focus on the preventive measures before the accident. Safety engineering focuses on prevention, and safety management emphasizes the policy of prevention, which is based on the principle that accidents are possible to be prevented. 1n the investigation report of the cause of the accident, it is often recorded that “the cause of the accident is irresistible”. The so-called “irresistible” can only be said for natural disasters. As an accident caused by human disasters, through the implementation of effective countermeasures, accidents can be completely avoided, can be prevented, and can be prevented2. The principle of accidental loss

the concept of industrial accident includes two meanings: one is the occurrence of an accident; the other is the occurrence of an accident; The second is the loss caused by the accident, the consequences of the accident will cause losses. The so-called losses include human death, injury and disability, damage to health, mental pain, etc., and the losses also include material aspects, such as the burning or fouling of raw materials, finished products or semi-finished products, equipment damage, production decline, compensation payment and market loss, etc. The accident that causes human loss can be called personal accident; The accident that causes the loss of material is called material accident

there are three kinds of personal accidents: first, accidents caused by people’s unsafe actions, such as tripping, falling from high altitude, people colliding, body twisting, etc; Second, accidents caused by the movement of objects, such as the impact of flying objects, the compression of heavy objects, the clamping of rotating objects, the collision of vehicles, etc; Third, accidents caused by contact or absorption, such as electric shock caused by contact with charged conductors, radiation from radiation, contact with high or low temperature objects, inhalation of toxic gases or contact with harmful substances, etc

therefore, there is the following rule between the accident and the loss: the size or type of loss caused by the consequence of an accident is determined by contingency. Repeated accidents of the same kind do not necessarily cause the same losses

there are also accidents that have no loss and no loss at the time of accident, which are called dangerous accidents. Even if a dangerous event like this avoids losses, if it happens again, whether the losses will occur and how large the losses will be can only be determined by chance, but not by prediction. Therefore, in order to prevent large losses, the only way is to prevent accidents from happening again< 5. The principle of secondary causes accidents and causes are inevitable, and accidents and losses are accidental the principle of secondary cause is causal inheritance “loss” is the consequence of the accident; The direct cause of the accident is the most recent cause before the accident, or the proximate cause; The direct cause is called indirect cause, which is also called secondary cause. The more profound cause of indirect cause is called basic cause, which is called remote cause. The basic reasons are the lack of internal management of enterprises, the defects of policies, decrees and systems of industries and competent departments, and the reasons of school education, society and history indirect causes are secondary to basic causes, and then secondary to direct causes. The direct cause can be divided into human cause and material cause. Accidents may occur when people and objects are secondary to each other therefore, the prevention of accidents must be traced from the direct cause to the basic cause. 1n order to prevent the secondary accidents caused by hazard sources, it is necessary to control the hazard sources and strengthen the safety management, especially the energy management< According to the three most important causes of the accident in the cause analysis: technical reasons, educational reasons and management reasons, corresponding preventive measures can be taken2. The Countermeasures of education; 3. The Countermeasures of legal system generally, the Countermeasures of technology, education and enforcement are called “3E countermeasures”, which are considered as the three pillars to prevent accidents the most appropriate countermeasures to prevent accidents are obtained on the basis of cause analysis, and the countermeasures aiming at indirect causes and basic causes are the fundamental ones. The more rapid, timely and accurate the countermeasures are, the smaller the probability of accidents will be 5. The principle of risk factor protection the principle of eliminating potential hazards, and the high and new technology are used to eliminate the hazards and harmful factors in the working environment, so as to ensure the maximum possible safety and reliability of the system and protect the risk factors to the maximum extent the principle of reducing the level (value) of risk factors when the risk factors cannot be eliminated, measures should be taken to reduce the number of risk and harmful factors, such as strengthening personal protection, reducing the personal inhalation of dust and poisons according to the principle of distance protection, the role of dangerous and harmful factors in production will be weakened according to a certain law related to distance. For example, in order to protect against ionizing radiation such as radioactivity, noise and blast wave, the safety distance should be increased to reduce its harm. Using automation and remote control to keep the operators away from the dangerous area is the safety direction of applying distance protection principle the principle of time protection is to shorten the time of people in the environment of dangerous and harmful factors to a safe limit. Shielding principle refers to the setting of barriers within the scope of dangerous and harmful factors to protect people from the invasion of dangerous and harmful factors. Shielding is divided into mechanical, photoelectric, absorbing (such as lead plate absorbing radiation) and so on China labor insurance net

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