How to prevent the harm of toxic substances?

The occurrence of chemical poisoning must meet certain conditions: there is a certain toxic chemical in the production environment, and in order to reach the concentration or quantity that can lead to human poisoning, the producer must contact for a certain period of time and absorb the toxic substances that reach or exceed the toxic amount. Therefore, the occurrence of occupational poisoning is actually the result of the interaction among toxic substances, production environment and workers. As long as the connection between the three is cut off, occupational poisoning can be completely prevented. 1n order to prevent the harm of poison poisoning, preventive measures should be taken from three aspects: eliminating poison at source, reducing poison concentration and strengthening personal protection

to eliminate toxic substances

it is the most ideal measure to replace toxic and high toxic processes and raw and auxiliary materials with non-toxic and low toxic processes and raw and auxiliary materials as far as possible. For example: circulating water sterilization, disinfectant using chlorine dioxide instead of chlorine, fundamentally eliminate the working environment of chlorine poisoning. Of course, it is difficult to completely eliminate toxic substances, but this should be our priority protection measures

reduce the concentration of toxic substances

when it is difficult to eliminate the toxic substances, the concentration of toxic substances should be reduced as far as possible, so that it can be controlled within the occupational exposure limit specified by the state. Measures can be taken from the following aspects

1) the production unit should be closed and pipelined to achieve negative pressure production as far as possible to prevent leakage and overflow of toxic substances. The equipment shall be as automatic as possible, and DCS shall be used for centralized monitoring, control and management of process control. The processing, storage and transportation of materials are all sealed, and corresponding sealing measures are taken at the joints between equipment and pipelines to prevent medium leakage. When collecting samples containing high toxic substances, closed samplers should be used to minimize the exposure of operators to toxic substances< 2) ventilation and detoxification. Necessary mechanical ventilation and purification devices shall be set to prevent poison from escaping. When it is necessary to enter the equipment, containers or narrow closed places with high toxic substances for operation, it is necessary to maintain good ventilation of the workplace in advance to ensure that the concentration of occupational poisoning hazard factors in the workplace meets the national occupational health standards 3) the production unit is arranged in the open air, and the toxic substances can be rapidly diluted and diffused through natural ventilation. The production layout should be reasonable, and the toxic and non-toxic workplaces should be separated; High toxic workplaces should be isolated from other workplaces; The workplace shall be separated from the living place, and no one shall live in the workplace< 4) take preventive measures to prevent poisoning accidents. For example, a fixed toxic gas detection and alarm device shall be installed in the workplace where acute poisoning may occur; Necessary accident ventilation facilities, emergency evacuation passage, necessary danger relief area and wind vane shall be set up; Conspicuous warning signs should be set up in places prone to toxic hazards and poisoning accidents; 1n the working environment with toxic substances, necessary health protection facilities such as shower and eye washer should be designed 5) when the operator makes mistakes or the equipment reaches a dangerous state, the occurrence of poisoning event should be terminated by interlocking device< 6) strengthen occupational health management. The occupational health management system should be formulated and improved; Maintenance and management of production equipment should be strengthened to prevent environmental pollution caused by running, emitting, dripping and leaking; The concentration of toxicants in the air of workplace should be monitored regularly to keep it below the occupational exposure limit, etc strengthen personal protection do a good job in personal protection is a very important measure to prevent the harm of poisons, and is the last barrier to prevent poisons from entering the human body. On the one hand, protective clothing, protective gloves and protective glasses can prevent the direct damage of corrosive poisons to skin and mucous membrane, on the other hand, they can also prevent the absorption of poisons through skin and mucous membrane; Respiratory protective equipment can prevent poison from entering human body through respiratory system 1) according to the working environment of different posts, appropriate protective equipment should be provided for the operators, and the use management regulations should be formulated 2) in the workplaces where toxic gas may leak, in addition to the conventional labor protection articles, the accident cabinet should be equipped in the eye-catching place according to the characteristics of poison and protection requirements, and the necessary anti-virus protective equipment should be placed for emergency use in escape and rescue 3) when entering the workplace with high toxic substances for patrol inspection, coagulation discharge, instrument calibration, sampling, water cutting and other operations, you should wear corresponding protective equipment and carry portable alarm device. Two people should go together, one for operation and one for monitoring. When working on oil tank, crude oil tank, light waste oil tank, sewage tank and gas medium containing acid gas containing hydrogen sulfide, suitable air respirator must be worn and supervised 4) when entering the extremely dangerous areas such as sulfur recovery unit, sewage stripping unit, flare unit, acid gas pipeline, acid water on the top of light hydrocarbon recovery debutanizer, dry gas pipeline of light hydrocarbon recovery unit, catalytic and hydrogenation acid water tank, it is necessary to be accompanied by guardians, wear positive pressure self-contained air respirator, and use portable hydrogen sulfide detector and other alarms 5) when it is necessary to enter the equipment, containers or narrow closed places with high toxic substances for operation, it should be isolated, replaced and purged according to the regulations, and it can only enter after passing the analysis. At the same time, the workers must be equipped with protective articles in line with the national occupational health standards, set up on-site monitoring personnel and on-site rescue equipment, strictly abide by the requirements of the operating procedures and emergency plans, and prevent the occurrence of occupational poisoning accidents 6) the workplaces with high toxic substances shall be equipped with shower rooms and changing rooms, and special rooms for cleaning, storing or handling the work clothes, work shoes and hats of workers engaged in the operation with high toxic substances. At the end of the operation, the used work clothes, work shoes and hats and other articles must be stored in the high toxic operation area, and shall not be worn in the non high toxic operation area 7) in the working environment of toxic substances, the first aid kit should be equipped according to the characteristics and toxicity of toxic substances in addition, health education and health monitoring should be strengthened to enable employees to consciously abide by safe operation procedures, use appropriate protective equipment and develop good personal hygiene habits China labor insurance net

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