(original title: it’s important to master these preventive knowledge on haze days of Lentinus edodes)
Page 1 it’s important to master these preventive knowledge on haze days of Lentinus edodes.
recently, due to the fierce attack of haze king, many friends living in big cities have shown difficulty breathing happily, especially taking Beijing as an example, 33 of them belong to grade 6 serious pollution level. Some experts analysis: the special climate background and extreme weather conditions are the important inducement of this round of haze in North China. 2015-2016 is the “strongest El Nino year” since historical statistics. North China is in the extreme adverse weather conditions of “high humidity”, “low wind speed” and “strong inversion temperature”, which promotes the continuous accumulation of pollution. Many friends just want to say in silence: “blue thin, mushroom!”
for the sake of people’s health, 1 have racked my brains to collect knowledge about the prevention of haze hazards, hoping to bring you a trace of green oxygen in the “flying clouds” life
1: Analysis on the “life experience” and harm degree of haze King
1. What is haze
haze: it is the general name of fog and haze. Fog and haze, two different weather phenomena, usually appear together. Although there are clear differences in the definition, it is not easy to distinguish them in the actual observation and research, so they are often referred to as “haze weather”. The composition of fog is relatively simple, mainly composed of a large number of tiny water droplets or ice crystal droplets suspended in the air near the ground, while the composition of haze is very complex, most of the harmful substances are usually concentrated in fine particles (PM2.5). At present, the known main components include: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium salt, heavy metals, crustal materials, carbon particles and so on2. The relationship between haze and particulate matter
high concentration of PM2.5 is one of the important reasons for the formation of haze weather. PM2.5 refers to particles with diameter less than or equal t2.5 microns, also known as fine particles. 1t is composed of particles directly discharged into the air and secondary particles generated by chemical transformation of gaseous pollutants in the air. 1n the process of air suspension, PM2.5 will further absorb the organic components, metal components, bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microbial components in the air. Therefore, PM2.5 has an important impact on air quality and visibility< 3. The direct harm of haze to human health< Generally speaking, the smaller the particle size is, the deeper the entry site is, the larger the diffusion area is, and the longer the residence time is, the greater the absorption capacity of the body is. After the particles deposit in the alveoli, they are absorbed by the alveoli, and sent to the whole body through the blood. They work on the whole body without the transformation of the liver. Therefore, they enter the body through the respiratory tract and cause many hazards, which are easy to lead to acute poisoning, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary heart disease, etc. particles can also cause the decline of the body's immune function, leading to the occurrence and death of cancer< 4. The indirect harm of haze to human health fine particles float in the air for a long time, causing great harm to human production and life, mainly in the impact of indoor air, greening and damage to building materials, reducing atmospheric visibility and so on. PM2.5 can scatter and absorb solar energy, reduce atmospheric visibility, and cause impact on climate and traffic. The absorption and scattering of solar radiation also reduce the intensity of ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground, thus indirectly affecting health 5. The impact of haze on susceptible population according to foreign studies, the patients with increased hospitalization rate, outpatient rate and cardiopulmonary disease caused by increased concentration of airborne fine particles are mostly sensitive groups, such as the elderly with low body resistance, the elderly with weak body, the individuals with cardiopulmonary disease, such as asthma, children with low resistance and large outdoor activity, and women are more sensitive than men. 1t is found that individuals with cardiopulmonary diseases, such as bronchitis, are more vulnerable to particulate pollution< How to prevent the "seven injury fist" of haze King 1 the elderly, children, pregnant women and people suffering from heart and lung diseases should avoid outdoor activities and minimize travel in the haze weather. 1f they have to go out, they should take protective measures such as wearing masks; After going out and coming back, clean the face and naked skin in time. 1n addition to indoor smoking, fuel combustion, cooking fume and other sources, indoor PM2.5 mainly comes from outdoor. 1n haze weather, doors and windows should be closed as far as possible to reduce the entry of particles into the indoor environment. Conditional families can use air purifiers to reduce indoor particulate pollution< How to choose the right mask at present, ordinary masks and disposable non-woven masks on the market may have a certain blocking effect on dust and large particles, but the protection for haze, PM2.5, bacteria, virus and other microbial particles is not enough. 1t is recommended to choose masks marked with kn95 or N95 (under the test conditions specified in the standard, the minimum filtration efficiency of 95%) and FFP2 (the minimum filtration efficiency of 94%) or above. 1n addition, when consumers choose masks, in addition to the protective function, they should also consider the user’s face shape and comfort to ensure effective protection 3. How to wear a mask correctly wash hands before and after wearing masks; The color side of the mask is outward, and the metal side is upward; Fasten the rope to fix the mask, or wind the rubber band around the ear to make the mask close to the face; The mask should completely cover the mouth, nose and chin; Press the metal pieces on the mask along both sides of the bridge of the nose to make the mask close to the face. Avoid touching the mask after wearing it; 1f you have to touch the mask, wash your hands thoroughly before and after touching after wearing the mask every time, the air tightness must be checked. Cover the mask with both hands to exhale. 1f you feel the gas leaking from the nose clip, you should adjust the nose clip again. 1f you feel the gas leaking from both sides of the mask, you need to further adjust the position of the headband and ear band; 1f the fit cannot be obtained, the mask model needs to be changed 4. About the wearing time of masks generally speaking, with the increase of the use time of the anti particle mask, the filtered particles will gradually block the filter material, and the filtration efficiency will generally decrease. On the one hand, a large number of pollutants such as particulate matter are adsorbed on the outside of the mask for a long time, which will increase the respiratory resistance; On the other hand, the inside of the mask will also absorb bacteria and viruses in the exhaled air. Therefore, it is suggested that the wearer should replace the mask timely according to the respiratory resistance of the mask and the acceptability of the sanitary conditions. However, if the wearer has been exposed to the infectious environment, or has found parts damaged, such as the loss of nose clip, broken headband, damaged mask, etc., it should replace it immediately 5. What are the precautions for special people to wear protective masks wearing a mask will increase respiratory resistance and stuffy heat, not everyone is suitable for wearing a mask. The selection of protective masks for special groups must be careful: (1) pregnant women should pay attention to the combination of their own conditions and choose comfortable products, such as protective masks with expiratory valves, to reduce expiratory resistance and stuffy heat. Before wearing, consult a professional doctor to confirm that your physical condition is suitable( 2) Elderly people and patients with chronic diseases have different physical conditions. For example, patients with cardiopulmonary diseases will feel uncomfortable after wearing it, and even aggravate the original condition. These people should consult doctors for their professional guidance( 3) Children are in the stage of growth and development, and their face shape is small, so it is difficult for general masks to achieve the effect of close fitting. 1t is recommended to choose the protective masks suitable for children produced by regular manufacturers< How to choose and use air purifier correctly any air purification device for the purification of pollutants are targeted, different principles of air purification technology have certain advantages, but there are also limitations. When purchasing air purification devices, families should first determine the purpose of purification, that is, what kind of pollutants to purify. 1f PM2.5 is the main pollutant of haze, an effective purifier should be selected to reduce the indoor pollution caused by haze. The purification effect is expressed by the clean air volume (Cadr) of the purifier. The air purifier whose Cadr is lower than or close to the natural air exchange rate (30 cubic meters of fresh air per hour per person) of the hygienic requirements has no practical value; Cadr should be more than 90 cubic meters per hour. 1n order to achieve the purification effect, the air purifier must be turned on for a certain time according to the room area, power and purification efficiency of the purifier, so as to reduce the pollution degree of indoor haze particles. 1n addition, purification materials also have service life, should be replaced in time according to the degree of pollution and use time, to avoid secondary pollution< How to control PM2.5 pollution in public places PM2.5 pollution in public places mainly comes from indoor smoking (i.e. indoor pollution source) and PM2.5 particles in outdoor air (i.e. outdoor pollution source) during haze. The indoor pollution sources can be controlled by the measures of banning smoking in public places. For outdoor pollution sources, efficient purification devices can be installed at the entrance of fresh air in public places with central air conditioning and ventilation system. During the occurrence of haze, the purification device can effectively prevent PM2.5 particles from entering the air conditioning and ventilation system, so that the indoor PM2.5 concentration does not increase significantly with the occurrence of outdoor haze; For places with centralized ventilation or non centralized ventilation without high-efficiency purification device, during the occurrence of outdoor fog and haze, outdoor air should be reduced to the maximum extent according to the flow of people. 1ndoor air purification products, such as air purifier, ventilator, air purification materials, can be used in places with conditions to further purify indoor air, Reduce indoor PM2.5 pollution level in public places when using air purification products in different indoor places (such as offices, schools, public places, families, etc.), special attention should be paid to the fact that air purification products (except ventilators) only purify part of the air pollutants, and generally do not have the function of purifying carbon dioxide produced by human body. Therefore, when there are many indoor people, such as schools, public places, etc, The ventilation time interval should be considered according to the health requirements (30 cubic meters of fresh air per hour per person), the number of indoor personnel and the natural ventilation rate of indoor space. 1f necessary, the ventilation time interval should be determined by temperature and carbon dioxide monitoring. No matter what indoor place, if the ventilation is ignored, it is very likely to cause indoor high temperature, suffocation, and severe hypoxia< How to deal with the heavy air pollution warning issued by the government when issuing the blue warning, it is suggested that children, the elderly, patients with respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and other vulnerable groups should reduce outdoor sports, advocate taking public transport as much as possible, and reduce motor vehicles on the road when issuing the yellow warning, it is suggested that children, the elderly, patients with respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and other vulnerable groups should stay indoors as far as possible to avoid outdoor sports; 1t is suggested that primary and secondary schools and kindergartens reduce the number of children