Occupational hazards and prevention measures of migrant workers

The so-called occupational diseases refer to the diseases caused by the exposure of workers in enterprises, institutions and individual economic organizations (hereinafter referred to as employers) to dust, radioactive substances and other toxic and harmful substances in their occupational activities. There are 115 kinds of 10 kinds of occupational diseases in China. As migrant workers work in harsh production environment, the phenomenon of occupational hazards is particularly prominent. Especially in the production line, it is more likely to be attacked by productive dust, and the harm is more serious

productive dust refers to the solid particles produced in the production process and can float in the air for a long time, such as coal dust, cement dust, quartz dust, etc. The dust mainly comes from mining, rock drilling, blasting, tunneling and road construction; Raw material preparation of technical smelting industry, such as ore crushing, screening, transportation, etc; Sand mixing and cleaning in foundry industry; Raw material processing of refractories, glass, cement and ceramics; Raw material treatment in textile and fur industry; 1n chemical industry, solid raw material processing, finished product packaging, etc. 1n the above process, if the dust prevention measures are not perfect, a large amount of dust can escape

Occupational Hazards in cement production: dust is the main hazard to workers in cement production, and a large amount of dust is produced in crushing, grinding, sieving, batching, kiln discharging, packaging and other processes. Long term inhalation of raw meal dust can cause silicosis, and inhalation of clinker or cement dust after burning can cause cement pneumoconiosis. When cement meets with water or sweat, it can produce alkaline substances such as calcium hydroxide, stimulate the skin, cause dermatitis, enter the eye and cause conjunctivitis and keratitis. Raw material drying, shaft kiln calcination (145 ℃) and other operating areas, with high temperature, thermal radiation. 1n addition, when all kinds of equipment are running, they can produce different degrees of noise

hazards of welding operation: the main hazards of welding operation include welding dust and ultraviolet rays. Long term inhalation of dust containing flue gas can lead to welder’s pneumoconiosis. 1f the electrode used is high manganese electrode, long-term inhalation of flue gas may also cause manganese poisoning. 1f the strong ultraviolet light in the arc light is not protected, it can cause electric ophthalmia

What are the occupational hazards of painting: the main occupational hazard of painting is inhalation of organic solvent vapor. All kinds of paints are composed of film-forming materials (various resins), solvents, pigments, desiccants and additives. Ordinary paint usually uses gasoline as solvent, epoxy iron red primer contains a small amount of xylene, dip paint mainly contains toluene, but also a small amount of benzene. Spray paint (nitro paint) and its diluent (banana water) contain a lot of benzene, toluene and xylene. The concentration of benzene in the air of the workplace is quite high when painting without protection, which is harmful to the hematopoietic organs of painting workers

patients with four kinds of diseases are not suitable for dust work

in China, pneumoconiosis patients account for the majority of occupational disease patients. Pneumoconiosis is a systemic disease mainly caused by diffuse fibrosis of lung tissue caused by long-term inhalation of productive dust in production activities. Pneumoconiosis may have no clinical symptoms in the early stage, but some patients have chest tightness, cough and expectoration. With the aggravation of the above symptoms, there will be shortness of breath, asthma, dyspnea and other symptoms< The following four types of diseases are not suitable for dust work: 1. Various types of active pulmonary tuberculosis or extrapulmonary tuberculosis, such as intestinal tuberculosis, renal tuberculosis, etc2. Chronic lung diseases or severe chronic upper respiratory and bronchial diseases, such as obvious emphysema, pulmonary pyosis, pulmonary parasitosis and protozoosis, atrophic rhinitis, nasal tumor, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis and severe chronic bronchitis, etc; 3. Lung diseases or pleural changes that significantly affect lung function, such as extensive and severe pleural hypertrophy, adhesion, pleurisy, encapsulated pleural effusion, and severe congenital or acquired thoracic deformity; 4. Serious cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, organic heart disease, etc. For welding operation, because of exposure to dust and ultraviolet radiation at the same time, people with conjunctivitis can not engage in this work< The key to prevent pneumoconiosis is dust prevention. Do a good job of dust prevention, the dust concentration in the working environment will be greatly reduced, to meet the national occupational health standards, can basically prevent the occurrence of pneumoconiosis. The main technical measures of dust prevention can be summarized as "Xuan, Ge, Shui, M1, Feng, Hu, Guan, Cha". 1ts meaning is: propaganda, do a good job in publicity and education, make dust prevention work become the conscious action of workers; The basic measure to eliminate pneumoconiosis is to innovate the production technology. Specifically, the dry operation should be changed to wet operation, and the raw materials without free silica or low content should be used as far as possible to realize the mechanization, airtight and automation of the production process; Close the source of productive dust; Wind, the use of ventilation to achieve the purpose of dust removal; Take personal protective measures and strengthen physique; Strengthen technical management and establish necessary dust control system; Check, carry out regular health examination for dust workers, and regularly measure and supervise the dust concentration in the working environment< 1n addition, because pneumoconiosis is a progressive disease, after diagnosis, the condition of the vast majority of patients will continue to progress no matter whether they are treated or not, from stage to stage, and then from stage to stage, but the progress speed of each patient is different, so pneumoconiosis should adhere to regular review, once a year to grasp the degree of disease development China labor insurance net

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