Occupational hazards and protection of electroplating

Occupational hazards of electroplating

the main occupational hazards of electroplating are exposure to a variety of harmful gases and solutions. When oil is removed with organic solvent, vapor of gasoline, trichloroethylene and other organic solvents will escape. The process of using strong acid all has acid mist escaping, and the amount of acid mist escaping is the largest during etching, which can stimulate and corrode the mucous membrane, and cause dental erosion. When the strong acid solution splashes on the skin, it immediately causes burns. When chromium plating, the concentration of chromic acid in the air around the plating bath is relatively high. Perforation of nasal septum, skin ulcer, dermatitis and eczema may occur after long-term contact, and bronchial asthma may occur in some people. Contact with nickel sulfate during nickel plating can also cause dermatitis and eczema. When electroplating with alkaline chromium salt, hydrogen cyanide can escape. 1f cyanide in plating solution meets with acid, high concentration of hydrogen cyanide can be produced, which can cause acute poisoning and even threaten life

at present, a few foreign-funded, joint ventures and formal specialized enterprises in this industry have international advanced equipment and management, high degree of automation and sophisticated equipment, and can meet the requirements of relevant laws, regulations, national standards and industry standards in the treatment of three wastes, energy conservation and emission reduction, occupational hazard prevention and recycling. But most small and medium-sized enterprises are still using a lot of outdated technology and equipment, a large number of production lines are semi mechanized, some even manual operation. According to the relevant data, the air sample exceeding standard rate of chromium plating workshop is 16.7%. However, most enterprises have not implemented the GBZ1-2002 “health standard for industrial enterprise design” and other relevant standards in the new construction, expansion and reconstruction, let alone the detection of occupational hazards in the workplace Evaluation, some illegal owners do not even provide workers with perfect personal protective equipment. The barbarism and disorder in the primitive accumulation period constitute the general characteristics of electroplating industry< 1. Common chemical substances for electroplating: 1. Cyanide: including cyanide containing salts. Highly toxic, inhibit respiratory enzymes, resulting in cell asphyxia. 1nhalation of high concentration hydrogen cyanide gas in a short time can immediately stop breathing and die. Poisoning can be caused by immersion in respiratory tract, esophagus and skin. Mild cases have mucous membrane irritation, numbness of lips and tongue, asthma, nausea, vomiting and palpitation. 1n severe cases, irregular breathing, consciousness gradually coma, incontinence of urine and feces, and rapid respiratory disturbance may lead to death. Neurological sequelae may also occur after cyanide poisoning is cured, chemicals such as (2), sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, ammonia and sodium hydroxide exist in the air of workplace in the form of corresponding gas and acid (alkali) fog, and enter human body mainly through respiratory tract and digestive tract. 1nhalation can cause upper respiratory tract infection, cough, chest tightness, congestion of throat and nasal cavity, perforation of nasal septum ulcer, laryngeal spasm, pharyngeal erosion ulcer, bronchitis, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, pneumonia, pulmonary edema and other symptoms. External contact may cause burns, skin allergy and corneal perforation< (3) metal salts such as zinc, copper, nickel and chromate: inhalation of aerosol causes upper respiratory tract infection, such as nasal perforation, nasal ulcer, contact dermatitis and allergic dermatitis eczema after skin contact. Entering the human body causes acute poisoning, such as: shortness of breath, dyspnea, cyanosis, shock, diarrhea, abdominal colic, liver function damage, renal failure. Chromium salt is also a carcinogen< (4) organic chemicals; The main solvents are alkanes, ethanol and benzene. The components of various additives are complex, mainly the condensation and addition reactants of epoxy chlorinated alkanes with alcohols, alkynes and ethers. After entering the human body, these two kinds of poisons are mostly reflected as dyskinesia, neurogenic damage, blood diseases such as leukemia, dysfunctional anemia, etc< 1. Dust: the main sources of electroplating dust are polishing, grinding, sandblasting and other processes. The main reason is the potential harm of silicosis

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