Personal protection: the development of protective glasses in China

since the ban on fireworks and firecrackers was changed in many cities in China, the protective glasses for fireworks and firecrackers have been gradually accepted by the masses. The lenses of protective glasses are made of high-grade polycarbonate raw materials, which can resist the short-range shooting of steel ball gun. The weight of the protective glasses is only 30 grams. There are two kinds of protective glasses for adults and children. There is a picture of the correct way to set off fireworks on the packing box. 1n addition, the colored lenses of the protective glasses can be worn at night to improve the brightness. Photo by Zhang Bin

the importance of eyes to human body is self-evident. At the same time, the eye is also a very fragile human organ. Especially in the production process, due to foreign bodies, toxic gases and other violations, the eyes are very easy to be injured, so protective glasses are used

at 5:30 p.m. on November 1, a man, holding his worker, rushed to the eye center of Fuzhou General Hospital of Fujian Province to ask for help from a doctor. There was a 2 cm long iron nail on the injured’s eyeball, which was a V-shaped transverse nail on the eyeball. 1t turned out that this man was a decoration worker. When using the nail gun, he pulled the trigger several times and did not shoot the nail. He felt that the nail gun was jammed, so he turned the muzzle of the nail gun, put his left eye together to see what was going on. He didn’t see the problem, so he pulled the trigger again. A nail went into the left eye. Fortunately, both ends of the nail only pierced the eye white, and the cornea was not damaged. 1f the worker had been wearing goggles at that time, the accident would not have happened< 1t is understood that occupational eye injuries account for about 5% of industrial injuries and 50% of injuries in ophthalmic hospitals. According to the statistics released by the China eye injury conference, eye injury is 1% - 3% of the national employees every year, while it is as high as 34% in some industrial departments. 1n the production process, the common industrial eye injury factors include foreign body eye injury, chemical eye injury, non ionizing radiation eye injury, ionizing radiation eye injury and microwave and laser eye injury casting, machine manufacturing and construction are the main departments of foreign body ocular trauma. Most of the small particles can be washed away by tears, but the foreign bodies left in the eyelid, embedded in the cornea or sclera surface, if not removed in time, can cause ulcer and infection. Some solid foreign bodies (such as metal fragments of rotating chips or grinding metal particles) can cause serious eyeball rupture and penetrating injury if they hit the eyeball chemical eye injury refers to the corneal burn caused by acid-base liquid or corrosive smoke entering the eyes during the production process, such as using sodium hydroxide, operating calcium oxide jar, conveying pipes containing corrosive liquid or gas, cyanide or nitrite splashing during metal quenching, etc non ionizing radiation eye injury, including visible light, ultraviolet light and infrared light, the wavelength is 100nm. Ultraviolet radiation can cause conjunctivitis, with photophobia, pain, tears, blepharitis and other symptoms. Because this kind of symptoms mostly occurs in welders, it is often called “electro-optic ophthalmia”, which is a common occupational eye disease in industry. 1nfrared radiation produces thermal effects on the eye tissue, causing chronic eyelid or lens opacity (occupational cataract), and visible light causes eye fatigue, blepharospasm and conjunctivitis, but these symptoms are temporary and will not leave pathological changes ionizing radiation mainly occurs in the atomic polymerization industry, nuclear power plants (such as nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines), nuclear explosions, high energy physics experiments, medical diagnosis, isotope therapy and other places. 1f the eyes are exposed to electric radiation, serious consequences can occur. When the total dose absorption exceeds 2gy, cataract begins to appear, and the incidence increases with the increase of the total dose the damage of microwave to human eyes is mainly due to the lens opacity caused by thermal effect, leading to the occurrence of “cataract”. There are many applications of laser in industry, medical treatment and scientific research. 1f the laser is projected on the retina, it can cause burns. 1f the laser is larger than 0.1MW, it will cause eyeball hemorrhage, protein coagulation, melting and permanent blindness eyes are vulnerable to so many kinds of injuries, so eye protection equipment is particularly important. Glasses can be divided into vision correction, eye protection and decoration. The glasses for eye protection mainly include sunglasses, sports glasses and occupational protective glasses. With the development and progress of science and technology, eye protection glasses have developed from simple flat lenses to lenses with different diopters according to the needs of users individual eye and face protection refers to the labor protection in industrial production activities, which involves individual eye and face protection of workers in different industries and occupations. These products are collectively referred to as occupational protective glasses. Generally speaking, industrial eye protection glasses can be divided into two types: safety goggles and light proof goggles. Anti foreign body goggles are divided into the following categories: safety goggles, eye protection products against harmful substances, such as anti impact goggles and anti chemical eye protection goggles; Sunshade goggles: products to protect against harmful radiation, such as welding goggles, furnace goggles, laser goggles and microwave goggles another eye protection product is the protective mask, which can protect the human face at the same time. 1t is mainly divided into safety type and shading type. Safety type, can prevent solid and liquid harmful objects from damaging eyes and face, such as toughened glass mask, plexiglass mask; Shading type protective mask is a kind of product to protect the eye from harmful radiation, such as welding mask in industrial production, production workers, including decoration workers, auto repair workers, steel workers, are vulnerable to eye injuries. Therefore, it is best to wear goggles when working on site to prevent accidental eye injury the standards are relatively backward and can not keep up with the social development industrial protective glasses benefit every independent individual worker or consumer, and the quality of products is directly related to the physical and mental health of workers and consumers. Therefore, the formulation of standards, technical indicators and quality detection methods are also issues that people have been concerned about China is known as the “Kingdom of eyes” in the world. According to incomplete statistics, about 360 million people wear all kinds of glasses. But unfortunately, as a big consumer of glasses, our corresponding standards are far away from international standards. Even though the standard of glasses is compulsory, which has great social and economic benefits, the current standards can not keep up with the pace of the times due to the late start and insufficient attention. On the other hand, China has no right to vote and speak on a series of international standards related to eye protection. Due to the lack of voice in this professional field, our enterprises often encounter barriers from foreign standards in the process of entering the international market. Especially after China’s entry into WTO, the backward national standards in this field and the blocking of foreign standards make it more difficult for enterprises to cope with the harsh technical barriers it is understood that the reason for this situation is that the division of labor of government departments formed in history is limited, and the technical work in the field of individual eye and face protection, including standards, measurement, quality inspection and other aspects, has been in the situation of multi management and no management, which makes the professional and technical level in this field relatively backward for a large number of foreign products and products of small private enterprises flooding the market, due to the lack of national standards and testing capabilities, the quality inspection department can not implement quality control on them. The backward standardization work leads to the failure to improve the quality of products, which directly affects the eyesight health of consumers and workers it is understood that at present, there are only a few experts and committee members familiar with eye protection in China, and even fewer experts from enterprises Wang Guifen, senior engineer of Shanghai 1nstitute of work safety, told the reporter that China is currently working on the formulation and revision of national standards in this field. At present, the most commonly used eye protectors are impact protectors and welded eye protectors, she said. The current standard of anti impact eye protectors is gb5890-1986, and the standard of welding eye protectors is GB / t3609.1-1994. The former has become obsolete and needs to be revised; The latter is currently in the process of revision< Wang Guifen said that according to the relevant national regulations and standards, workers engaged in the corresponding types of work should use protective glasses. However, with the development of industry and the increase of glasses function, the scope of industrial protective glasses is gradually expanding. She gave such an example to reporters. 1n the past, the anti impact eye protectors only aimed at cutting workers and other types of work to avoid the injury of foreign bodies (such as metal debris) to the eyes. But with the increase of glasses function, such as colorless glasses added anti ultraviolet function, some outdoor work also used protective glasses to protect the eyes. This makes the scope of the use of protective glasses expanded, more people use protective glasses to protect their eyes however, when it comes to the utilization rate of protective glasses, she still expresses her concern: some foreign enterprises have standardized, refined and patterned the use of protective glasses to protect the safety of employees and managers as much as possible. For example: in our country, workers in the production and operation area should wear the corresponding labor protection equipment, including protective glasses, which are rigid regulations, but there are no strict regulations on the management personnel and foreign personnel entering the operation area. However, in foreign enterprises, as long as they enter the factory, both the company’s management personnel and foreign personnel should wear glasses to protect their eyes. But in some state-owned enterprises, Wang Guifen said frankly: “1 haven’t heard that any state-owned enterprise will achieve this level. Or even if there are, the proportion is very low. ” Therefore, to protect the safety of employees as much as possible, it is not only the emergence of new products, but also the need for enterprises to pay attention to and refine the safety work for the development of industrial protective glasses, Wang Guifen said that in the future, according to the different requirements of the working environment, with the continuous emergence of new types of work, more and better varieties will be derived, more comfortable and more practical, to protect the eyes of operators to the greatest extent. We can also expect to choose a barrier for the eyes (China labor insurance website)

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