Residential fire fighting and self rescue

With the increasing popularity of gas, electricity and oil, coupled with global warming, fires occur frequently. According to statistics, from January to November this year, there were 145025 fires across the country (excluding forest, grassland, army and underground mine fires, the same below). 1256 people died, 788 people were injured, and the direct property loss was 883.145 million yuan. Compared with the same period last year, the number of fires, deaths and injuries decreased by 32.7%, 16.3% and 43.7% respectively, but the loss increased by 22.8%. Among them, the residential fire safety management is facing new problems and new challenges, which accounted for more than 70% of the total number of residential fires in 2005< (1) the fire resistance rating of residential buildings is not high, and the phenomenon of unauthorized building is prominent. At present, there are many problems in residential areas in China, especially in rural areas, such as building houses in violation of laws and regulations, and building houses at will. The buildings built along the street are generally commercial shops with one floor and houses with two or more floors, and they share an evacuation exit, forming a "three in one" building; Some houses are old buildings built in the 1970s with poor quality and low fire resistance rating; 1n some areas, farmers generally stack firewood near their houses; 1n some areas, wooden materials are widely used as building components, and the interior decoration of residents is lack of supervision and management. A large number of inflammable plastic gusset plates, wooden keel, plywood and other materials are used; Some houses are office buildings, warehouses, factories and other building transformation, separated by combustible materials, with complex structure, narrow passage, and even connected with 1nternet cafes, saunas and other public places; Some residents build simple buildings at will, occupy the fire prevention space, block the fire lane, and the fire resistance rating of buildings is low< (2) fire fighting facilities are not complete. At present, most residential areas in China do not have supporting fire-fighting facilities, and there is no fire-fighting water source in residential areas, especially in rural residential areas. The fire-fighting distance between houses is insufficient, fire separation measures are not taken, and there is no fire lane. 1n order to prevent motor vehicles from entering, some residents cast concrete piers or set other obstacles at the main passage, which makes fire engines unable to enter, Most families are not equipped with the corresponding fire-fighting equipment. 1n case of fire, they can only look at the fire and sigh and burn the company< (3) the popularity of household fire, electricity, gas and oil, and the increase of fire factors. With the improvement of people's living standards and living conditions, people's living conditions have also changed. Liquefied gas and natural gas are used at home, and many residents often store 2-3 bottles of liquefied gas at home; Some households buy Motorcycles and cars and store and release gasoline and diesel at home; Some residents store firecrackers, paint and other dangerous goods at home; With the popularity of electricity, many households use electric heaters, electric irons, electric ferrochrome, hair dryers, electric blankets and other heating appliances. 1f these items are used improperly, they are very easy to cause fire accidents< (4) the fire organization is not perfect and the fire management is not in place. Due to the habit of many years, people often pay attention to the fire control work of enterprises and institutions, and the fire control work of flammable and explosive units such as public places and chemical places, but ignore the residential fire control work. The residential fire safety management basically stays in the form of talking. Secondly, the fire supervision institutions and local police stations have limited police force, heavy work tasks, and it is difficult to supervise. Residential fire control management is often implemented to residents' committees, villagers' committees or property management units. Most of the staff in these grass-roots units have not received fire control training and lack systematic fire control management knowledge. Therefore, it is difficult to integrate fire control work into daily management, Daily fire safety inspection, fire publicity, timely disposal of fire and other measures are difficult to be in place< (5) the fire prevention propaganda is not strong, and the residents' awareness of fire prevention is weak. 1n recent years, the fire department has done a lot of work in the fire propaganda, and the fire safety awareness of the masses has been enhanced. However, due to the constraints of financial resources, material resources, human resources and mass cultural quality, the popularization of fire safety knowledge of the masses is far from enough, and the residents lack systematic fire education and basic fire prevention and extinguishing knowledge. Such as throwing cigarette butts, pulling and connecting wires, nonstandard use of fire, electricity and gas, placing combustible materials at will, and stacking debris on the evacuation aisle. Once a fire accident occurs, it is easy to lead to death if it cannot be handled in time in view of the current situation of residential fire accidents and the characteristics and existing problems of residential areas, the government and relevant departments should strengthen the fire safety management of residential areas, and implement work measures according to local conditions. As a citizen, we should strengthen the fire prevention and self-help knowledge. 1n the face of thick smoke and raging flames, as long as we use the knowledge of self-help and escape in the fire scene calmly and tactfully, we will have a great possibility to save ourselves. Therefore, if you master more tips for self-help in a fire, you may be able to get a second life in a difficult situation some key points of fire escape: one trick: Escape rehearsal, be calm in the face of danger everyone should have a clear understanding of the structure and escape path of the building where they work, study or live. 1f necessary, they can organize emergency escape rehearsal to make everyone familiar with the fire-fighting facilities and self rescue escape methods in the building. 1n this way, when a fire breaks out, you won’t feel cornered. Please remember: preview beforehand will get twice the result with half the effort two tips: be familiar with the environment and remember the exit secretly when you are in a strange environment, such as staying in a hotel, shopping in a shopping mall, or entering a place of entertainment, for your own safety, you must pay attention to the location of the evacuation passageway, emergency exit, and stairs, so that you can escape from the scene as soon as possible. Please remember: when there is nothing wrong with safety, we must be prepared for danger in times of peace and reserve a way for ourselves three tips: the passage exit is unobstructed stairs, passageways and emergency exits are the most important escape ways in case of fire. They should be unobstructed. They should not pile up debris or lock gates, so that they can pass safely and quickly in case of emergency. Please remember: if you cut off your way, you will die< Four tips: put out the small fire and benefit others when there is a fire, if the fire is not big and it does not pose a great threat to people, when there are enough fire-fighting equipment around, such as fire extinguisher, fire hydrant, etc., efforts should be made to control and put out the small fire; Don’t panic to shout and run, ignore the small fire and lead to disaster. Please remember: fight against the clock to put out the “incipient fire” Five Tips: keep calm, discern the direction, and evacuate quickly in case of fire, in the face of smoke and fire, first of all, you should force yourself to keep calm, quickly judge the dangerous place and safe place, decide the way to escape, and evacuate from the dangerous place as soon as possible. Don’t blindly follow the flow of people and crowd each other. When evacuating, pay attention to run towards the bright place or open place outside, and try to run under the floor as far as possible. 1f the passage has been blocked by fireworks, you should leave with your back to the direction of fireworks, and escape outdoors through balcony, air window, roof, etc. Please remember: only when you are calm, can you come up with a good idea< No danger, no greed in a fire, human life is the most important thing. When you are in danger, you should evacuate as soon as possible. Don’t waste your precious escape time on dressing, looking for or moving valuables because you are shy or care about valuables. Those who have escaped from danger must not return to danger and fall into the trap. Please remember: keep green hills, not afraid of no firewood seven tips: simple protection, covering the nose and crawling escape through the route full of smoke to prevent smoke poisoning and suffocation. 1n order to prevent the smoke from choking into the fire, towel and mask can be used to cover the nose and crawl away. Smoke is lighter than air and floats on the upper part. Evacuation close to the ground is the best way to avoid smoke inhalation and filter poisonous gas. 1f you pass through the firework blockade area, you should wear gas masks, helmets, flame retardant and heat insulation clothing and other protective equipment. 1f you don’t have these protective equipment, you can pour cold water on your head and body, or wrap your head and body with wet towel, wet quilt, wet blanket, etc., and then rush out. Remember: it’s better to have multiple protective tools in your hand than to have bare hands Eight Tips: make good use of the passageway, do not enter the elevator buildings designed and built according to the standards will have more than two escape stairs, passageways or safety exits. 1n case of fire, it is necessary to choose a relatively safe stairway according to the situation. 1n addition to using stairs, you can also use the balcony, windowsill, roof, etc. of the building to climb to the surrounding safe place, and slide down the building along the projections of downpipes, lightning wires, etc. 1n high-rise buildings, the power supply system of the elevator will be cut off at any time in case of fire, or people will be trapped in the elevator due to the deformation of the elevator due to the effect of heat. At the same time, because the elevator shaft is like a through chimney, the poisonous smoke directly threatens the lives of the trapped people. Therefore, do not take the ordinary elevator to escape. Please remember: it’s very dangerous to take the elevator when you escape nine tips: Escape slowly and help yourself by sliding rope generally, high-rise and multi-storey public buildings are equipped with high-altitude descent devices or lifelines, through which people can safely leave dangerous floors. 1f there are no such special facilities, and the safety passage is blocked, and the rescue workers can not arrive in time, you can quickly use the ropes or bedsheets, curtains, clothes and other self-made simple life-saving ropes around you, and wet them with water, and slowly slide along the ropes from the windowsill or balcony to the floor or ground below; Safe escape. Please remember: bold and careful, the life-saving rope is at your side ten tips: stay in a shelter and wait for help if you feel hot by touching the door, once you open the door; Fire and smoke are bound to come face to face. The escape route was cut off and no rescue was carried out in a short time. At this time, we can take the measures of creating shelters and waiting for help. First of all, the doors and windows facing the fire should be closed tightly, the doors and windows behind the fire should be opened, the cracks of the door should be closed with a wet towel and a wet cloth plug, or the window should be covered with a wet quilt soaked with water, and then the water should not be stopped to drench the room to prevent the infiltration of fireworks, and stay in the room until the rescue personnel arrive. Please remember: why is a strong shield afraid of a sharp spear eleven tips: shake slowly and throw lightly, and ask for help people trapped by fireworks and unable to escape temporarily should try to stay on the balcony, windows and other places that are easy to be found and can avoid fireworks. 1n the daytime, you can shake bright clothes out of the window, or throw light dazzling things out of the window; 1n the evening, you can use the flashlight to flash or knock things in the window to send out an effective distress signal in time to attract the attention of rescuers. Because firefighters are groping along the wall when they enter the room, they should try to roll to the wall or the door when they are suffocated by the smoke, so as to facilitate firefighters to search and rescue; 1n addition, rolling to the wall can also prevent the collapse of the house structure from hurting yourself. Please remember: only by fully exposing yourself can we strive to save ourselves effectively 12

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