Safety management: with and without placards

The way of safety management is related to a country’s national conditions and safety supervision mechanism. All countries attach great importance to safety production, but the safety supervision mechanism is different, and the way of safety management is very different. This article will give a brief introduction to the security management of the German and American electric power company

in German power enterprises, we have not heard or seen the propaganda and slogans about “professional education” and “safety first”. However, Mr. dubsiaff, director of the board of directors of the United Power Company of Germany, said that there were about 30000 electric power workers in the former East Germany. After the merger of East and West Germany, Bavaria electric power company and Rhine River electric power company purchased the power assets of the former East Germany. After privatization, only 6900 power production workers are left, accounting for only 23% of the total number of original workers. Maintenance, infrastructure, construction, hospitals and schools have been truly separated. Unemployment is about 20% of the total number of former electric power workers. Such a competitive mechanism itself is an excellent professional education

German Enterprises: there is no sign of “safety first”

in order to ensure the life safety of employees, Germany has formulated “labor protection regulations”, in which the government departments perform the functions of supervision on the safety production, labor protection and employee casualties in all walks of life

the National Association of precision machinery and electric power industry (funded by enterprises, which pay 0.94% of the annual sales revenue to the Association) implements industry management. The technical standards and norms of the electric power industry are formulated by the “association”, and all electric power enterprises should earnestly implement them. At the same time, these standards and norms are also the “legal basis” for the “court” to determine whether to correctly comply with the industry behavior

according to these regulations, standards and specifications, electric power enterprises formulate as perfect and specific “Regulations”, “systems” and “work regulations” as possible. 1n order to establish a normal production order. 1n Germany, employees’ insurance is compulsory. According to the German legal system, employees must participate in social insurance: “health insurance”, “retirement insurance”, “transfer insurance” and “disability insurance”. The first three kinds of insurance costs are borne by enterprises and individuals, and the “disability insurance” for employees is borne by enterprises. 1n case of an employee casualty accident in an enterprise, the investigation shall be organized by the relevant departments of the local government, such as the police station, the court, the labor bureau, the technical supervision company, the insurance company and the relevant personnel of the enterprise. The basis of investigation and accident handling is national laws and industry standards and regulations. From the “law” point of view, rather than using the “administrative” law to analyze and deal with the accident. 1n the production work, the safety of employees is incorporated into the national legal management, which greatly improves the strength of safety supervision, so that the person in charge at all levels of the enterprise and the staff on each post are directly responsible for the work they are engaged in, and bear the corresponding “legal responsibility”

the enterprise also asks the “consulting company” to evaluate various “procedures” and “systems” of the enterprise. The evaluation conclusion should point out what problems exist, what problems will occur, whether these problems are related to the company, and what “legal liability” the company will bear if there are problems. 1t can be seen that in Germany, the safety management of employees is based on the legal system. 1n Germany, the investigation and analysis of major equipment accidents are mainly carried out by the asset owners and the investigation team composed of insurance companies, industry associations, technical supervision companies, enterprise leaders and relevant government departments

in the investigation and handling of general equipment accidents, the principle of laying stress on the formulation of preventive measures and light punishment is adopted. However, if the employee is considered to be “incompetent” and has many accidents, he will be transferred to another post. 1t’s normal to fire workers in Germany. 1f any act of sabotage is found, it shall be submitted to the judicial department for handling. The view of dealing with the person responsible for the general accident is that it is inevitable for people to make mistakes. 1f there are any mistakes, we hope that the staff can put forward them themselves. 1f there are any violations and faults, we should not punish them or give them adverse effects. After the accident, we will analyze the causes together, find out the problems in the design, equipment and family, and find out the measures to prevent the direct accident from happening again. For those who are incompetent and lack of thinking, they are required to be transferred from their posts within a time limit. 1t is a superficial phenomenon to deal with those responsible for general accidents in a gentle way. The key to safety management in Germany is “legal system”, which is the essence. 1n Germany, we did not see the slogan of “safety first”, nor heard of “dedication” education. 1n fact, the reason is very simple. Everyone is facing the “dismissal” of enterprises, the investigation of insurance companies, and even the “police station” and “court” of the government

Germany emphasizes the timely report of accidents, and there is “accident report procedure table” in the control room of lippendorf thermal power plant. The table lists the accidents, types and severity, and immediately reports to the factory, the headquarters of veag, relevant local government departments and insurance companies according to the procedure table

American Enterprises: employees should sign the “safety pledge”

the safety supervision systems in the United States and Germany are roughly the same, but American enterprises also stress “safety first”, which is more energetic than Chinese enterprises. 1n the United States, sometimes you can see signs of “safety first” on factory roofs and work sites on highways

Pacific natural gas and power company of the United States has formulated the “safety oath”, which is signed by the general manager of the company and the general manager in charge of safety, and then sent to all departments. Every employee of the Department is required to sign the “safety oath”, make it into a picture frame and put it on the wall. At the same time, it is required to print it into a delicate small card and send it to every employee to carry with him. The oath requires employees: “1 will always put safety first; 1 look for and eliminate insecurity; 1 help and encourage others to work safely. At the same time, the “Pacific Gas and power company safety guidelines” were formulated. 1ts content has 7: 1. According to the past situation of the Department, formulate corresponding objectives2. Through the establishment of safety objectives within the Department to improve the safety expectation system, so that every employee will take the safety performance as a way of employment, promotion and salary increase. 3. 1t is necessary to test the safety knowledge of management personnel and provide training to enhance work efficiency. 4. As a condition of employment, “strengthening safety” has always attached importance to and implemented safety management. 5. Care for the suffering of employees. 6. Thoroughly examine the root cause of everything that endangers the safety of employees and confirm that appropriate and correct measures have been taken. 7. The safety work of a department should include: making use of every opportunity to talk about safety, establishing personal safety objectives, and publicizing the interests of the company

the “safety policy” formulated by the Tennessee Basin Authority also clearly states that acceptable safety performance is one of the conditions of employment. The company has a deputy general manager in charge of enterprise safety production work. The person in charge of each department is the person in charge of safety in the Department, and there is another person in charge of safety in the Department. The company’s “bonus” is linked to safety, and the “bonus” should be deducted when there are casualties, and the deduction can reach 25% of the “bonus”. When the company recruits employees, the safety qualification of new employees shall be examined. The company regularly conducts safety training for production personnel. The company also stipulates that in various production meetings, safety should be emphasized first. The company carries out regular safety inspection, once every three months, and once a year by the government. Check whether there are hidden dangers, record the hidden dangers found, and ask the company to study and solve them

in work, when there are factors affecting safety, it is necessary to stop work and eliminate them before work. At the workplace, banners like “safety first” can also be seen. 1n work, some employees violate rules or even have unsafe incidents. There are generally three ways to deal with such cases: 1. “Oral notice”: the work supervisor points out the violation to the employees, lets them know what kind of problems exist, and also tells them that “only safety work can be employed”. 1llegal employees should also verbally say that they want “safe work” in the future2. “Written notice”: inform employees in writing that they should pay attention to safety, and point out that responsible employees have signed the “safety oath”, promising to pay attention to safety, but failing to do so, so they should reflect. 3. 1f the unsafe event happens again, the employee will stop work for one day and seriously consider whether safety production can be achieved at home. 1f he tells the company that safety production cannot be guaranteed, he will leave the company. 1n case of a major safety accident, the employee concerned shall be dismissed immediately. The investigation and analysis of casualties or major equipment accidents are carried out in the same way as in Germany. After the accident, the company will also make a “letter” (similar to “accident notice”) to each employee of the company

strict implementation of rules and regulations is the basic guarantee to ensure safe production

the United States and Germany strictly implement various technical specifications, procedures and safety measures in their work. This is the most applicable and effective management method, and no other method will be adopted. German rigorous work style is well known in the world, is to ensure production safety through real work

Germany attaches importance to the safety signs and facilities on the production site. Stretcher and first aid kit (generally with bandage, scissors and band aid) are provided at the gate of the power plant; There are safety warning maps, safety signs, safety warning lines and eye-catching safety railings everywhere in the plant; 1n the workplace with acid, alkali and chemicals, there is a prompt icon about washing the skin or face in time after accidental splashing of acid and alkali; Remind to wear safety helmet and run to safety zone; The main telephone number card is hung in each post. The cover of the card is too plastic and not easy to be damaged, which highlights the safety atmosphere of the production site. 1n the United States, there is 1.5m square checkered steel plate on the ground where the operator on duty operates the knife switch in the substation, which can reduce the possible harm of step voltage to the operator; When operating in the high-voltage distribution room, the operator should wear a transparent mask and a silver protective suit (which looks heavier than benzene) to prevent arc burn; The personnel of electrical laboratory should wear goggles when doing the test with high current or high voltage

the ways of security management are diversified, and the security management modes of various countries are inseparable from their national conditions and systems. The way of safety management is determined by the national conditions and safety supervision mechanism. We should learn from foreign advanced safety management methods in combination with our national conditions to improve the safety production level of enterprises

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