The gap between the rich and the poor in China is approaching the “red line” of social tolerance

in recent years, the income gap among regions, urban and rural areas, industries and groups in China has increased, and the imbalance of distribution pattern has led to the concentration of some social wealth to a few people, and the income gap has exceeded the warning “red line” marked by Gini coefficient, which has brought many problems that are increasingly becoming the focus of attention from all walks of life

experts believe that at present, China’s income distribution has come to the crossroads that need to be adjusted urgently. 1t is very urgent to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor and solve the problem of unfair distribution. We must keep the “red line” of the gap between the rich and the poor just as we keep the “red line” of 1.8 billion mu of cultivated land< According to Gini coefficient, the gap between the rich and the poor is approaching the "red line" of social tolerance. Chang Xiuze, a professor at the Macroeconomic Research 1nstitute of the national development and Reform Commission, said that there are different understandings of China's Gini coefficient among various institutions, and the world bank's 0.47 is generally recognized by the academic circles" China's Gini coefficient is still rising year by year after it crossed the internationally recognized warning line of 0.4 10 years ago, and the gap between the rich and the poor has broken through a reasonable limit. " Su Hainan, director of the labor and wage Research 1nstitute of the Ministry of human resources and social security, and chairman of the compensation committee of the Chinese labor society, believes that China’s income gap is expanding at all levels. At present, the income ratio of urban and rural residents in China is 3.3 times, and the highest in the world is about 2 times; The wage gap between industries is also very obvious, the difference between the highest and the lowest is about 15 times; The income gap between different groups is also rapidly widening. The income gap between executives of listed state-owned enterprises and front-line employees is about 18 times, and the difference between executives of state-owned enterprises and the average social wage is 128 times Li Shi, director of the income distribution and poverty research center of Beijing Normal University, has participated in four large-scale household income surveys since the 1980s. He said that the income gap between the top 10% and the bottom 10% has increased from 7.3 times in 1988 to 23 times in 2007 “do more, earn less” is the common feeling of many working class in the interview. Tang Jun, Secretary General of the center for Social Policy Research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said: “from the statistical data, the incomes of the poor and the rich have been increasing in recent years. However, considering the differences in their consumption expenditure, a large number of poor families’ expenditure is concentrated on the food and other necessities that are most likely to rise in price, and the distribution gap is showing a dangerous trend of” reducing poverty and increasing wealth “< 1n recent years, with the rapid development of China's economy, land, resources and capital have played a huge role in wealth adjustment. Real estate, minerals, securities and other "most profitable" profiteering industries, a small number of people to stand on the top of social wealth overnight< According to the 2009 Forbes China Fortune list, real estate developers account for 154 of the top 400; 1n the top 40, real estate developers accounted for 19; 1n the top 10 super rich, real estate developers account for 5. The real estate industry has become the main concentration of wealth in China Tang Jun, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that the basic element of the real estate industry is land, and selling a house is actually selling land. As for land, according to the current land use management policy, the government and real estate developers are both “monopoly buyers” and “monopoly sellers”. On the one hand, they collect land from farmers at a low price, and on the other hand, they sell houses to the masses at a high price. Apart from the local government revenue, the real estate industry has been taken away by a few real estate developers. Tang Jun said that with the soaring house prices, “people without houses” have been thrown far out of the door of wealth formation non renewable mineral resources are also occupied and utilized by a few people, and rapidly become rich. 1n Zuoyun, Shanxi, a large coal producing county in China, the reporter learned that in recent years, hundreds of “coal owners” with hundreds of millions of assets have been born here, but the per capita net income of local farmers is only 4359 yuan, which is more than 400 yuan lower than the national average “the unfair distribution of resource elements aggravates the unfair distribution of social wealth.” Chang Xiuze, Professor of the Macroeconomic Research 1nstitute of the national development and Reform Commission, said that this has a lot to do with the lack of China’s mineral resources property rights system, which is mainly manifested in the incomplete composition of resource prices and costs, low resource taxes, low mining costs, and no responsibility for environmental recovery. This is the “secret” of the “coal boss” to become super rich, and it is also the failure of the adjustment of distribution means The “Crux” of the widening gap between the rich and the poor many experts also believe that in recent years, the “hot” performance of the capital market, especially the prevalence of speculative investment behavior, has further strengthened the cumulative effect of capital wealth, widened the gap between capital income and labor income, industrial income, and created a situation of “the rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer”. Moreover, capital, land and resources are mutually reinforcing, which aggravates the gap between the rich and the poor< According to Wei Jie, Professor of Tsinghua University, and Shi Jing, vice president of Shaanxi Academy of Social Sciences, for a long time, there has been a strange phenomenon in the field of income distribution in China, that is, the income level depends not on intelligence and hard work, but on "seizing identity" and "seizing industry". 1f we can "grab" the monopoly industries such as electric power, telecommunications, oil, finance and tobacco, or "grab" the identity of civil servants and institutions, we will "grab" the high income, high welfare and high class in the interview, many people expressed extreme dissatisfaction with the “power distribution” represented by monopoly and “identity”. They believe that the state must weaken the role of power in the distribution pattern and reasonably adjust the income gap between various industries and groups in order to reduce the “ignition point” of social contradictions and achieve harmony and stability according to the statistics of the Ministry of human resources and social security, at present, the average wages of employees in electric power, telecommunications, finance, insurance, tobacco and other industries are two to three times that of employees in other industries. 1f the differences in extra wage income and employee benefits are added, the actual gap may be even larger. By the end of 2008, the pension level of government functionaries wa2.1 times that of enterprises, and the average monthly pension of public institutions was 1.8 times that of enterprises< Experts believe that this "power distribution", which relies on policy protection and resource monopoly, is contrary to the socialist principle of distribution according to work, seriously violates the right of individual development and distorts the pattern of income distribution. At the same time, it also draws a deep gap in people's mind in recent years, college graduates are competing for “imperial food”, and even more than a thousand people are competing for a civil service post. At the same time, the high wages of monopoly industries have been questioned. Experts believe that the state should reduce the negative impact of “power determines income” through a number of ways to calm the psychological imbalance in society $$$$ income distribution is multifarious white, black, gray, blood and gold are “dazzling in five colors” “gray income” and “black income” cause a large number of “hidden income” of the people, making the social wealth base unclear. Wang Xiaolu, deputy director of the National Economy Research 1nstitute of China reform foundation, published a study in 2007, which estimated that there was at least 4 trillion yuan of irregular “hidden income” every year at that time. Some experts believe that at present, China’s wage income accounts for only 1 / 3 of the total income, and the state can only monitor “white income”, which means that a large number of income is out of the scope of income tax regulation and out of the supervision due to the complexity of income distribution channels and the lack of basic national income recording system, China’s residents’ income channels also present a variety of state. Recently, the reporter interviewed a large number of experts, scholars, and grassroots cadres and masses in 15 provinces, autonomous regions and cities across the country. We all agree that we can use white, black, gray, blood, and gold to summarize the current income of all kinds the five kinds of “color income” are not only relatively independent, but also cross. Specifically, “white income” refers to normal income from enterprise law, such as wages and benefits” “Black income” refers to the illegal income obtained through corruption, bribery, theft and robbery, fraud and drug trafficking and other illegal means” “Gray income” refers to the income between legal and illegal, which is very common in China” “Blood income” refers to those incomes that break through the bottom line of human civilization and sacrifice other people’s lives and extract with blood, such as black brick kilns and black coal kilns” “Gold income” refers to the income obtained by using gold, stocks, futures and other capital experts believe that these five kinds of “color income” are not only based on the legitimacy of income, but also refer to the social moral standards, and basically summarize the main channels and ways of income distribution in China, which is an easily accepted and visualized way to describe the current income White income refers to the well-documented income in the field of current income distribution, which is clear, visible, controllable and predictable. Su Hainan, director of the labor and wage Research 1nstitute of the Ministry of human resources and social security, said that “white income” is the main channel of China’s income distribution system. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously increase the proportion of labor remuneration in national income distribution in the initial distribution, establish a normal wage growth mechanism and a payment guarantee mechanism, improve the social security system, and increase pension and other transfer income, Let “white” become the main color of income, highlight fairness and justice, and promote social stability and harmony black income includes not only the illegal income obtained by some people relying on power, but also the income obtained by smuggling, drug trafficking, theft, robbery, kidnapping and other illegal and criminal activities. Tang Jun, Secretary General of the social policy research center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and other experts believe that “black income” makes a large amount of public wealth flow into the pockets of power owners and criminals, which should be resolutely cracked down on blood income refers to those incomes that break through the bottom line of human civilization and sacrifice other people’s lives and extract with blood. We should also crack down on “bloody income”, such as the black brick kiln incident in Shanxi and the slave worker incident in Hulan District of Harbin. These behaviors trample the bottom line of human nature and civilization, and affect the national image, so they must be resolutely banned< 1n recent years, with the development of economy, golden income is becoming more and more important, which is mainly represented by capital gains and can also be understood as property income. 1n recent years, many people have gained asset appreciation from the stock market and the real estate market, and their wealth has multiplied. Some experts believe that "golden income" is worth encouraging, but we should also pay attention to regulation and guidance, so that it can go on a rational track and reduce speculation. At the same time, we should pay attention to regulating the "golden income" through tax and other supporting policies to prevent the "Matthew effect" from aggravating the gap between the rich and the poor< The concept of grey income is the most difficult to define. At present, the definition of "grey income" is not unified in academic circles. Some experts define it as personal secret income with unknown origin, no record, no tax payment and free from declaration. Some scholars believe that income is "black or white". No matter how high sounding, its essence is "black income" generated by the transaction of public power and private interest at present, the “gray” is the most common phenomenon

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