1n some high-risk industries, different poisoning behaviors often appear in the operation. Poisoning caused by exposure to productive poisons is called occupational poisoning. Acute poisoning can be caused by a large number of poisons entering the human body once or in a short time; Chronic poisoning can be caused by long-term excessive exposure to poisons; Subacute poisoning can be caused by short-term exposure to high concentration of toxicants. Due to the different characteristics of toxicants, some toxicants only cause chronic poisoning under production conditions, such as lead and manganese poisoning; And some poisons often cause acute poisoning, such as methane, carbon monoxide, chlorine, etc. Due to the different characteristics of toxic effects of poisons, there are great differences in performance, and there are many kinds of poisons, which can not be listed one by one. Here is only a general introduction.
(1) neurasthenia syndrome and mental symptoms are common in the early stage of chronic nervous system poisoning, which are generally functional changes and can gradually recover after contact. Lead, manganese poisoning can damage motor nerve, sensory nerve, cause peripheral neuritis. Tremor is common in sequelae of manganese poisoning or acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Brain edema may occur in severe poisoning.
(2) inhalation of certain gases in the respiratory system can cause asphyxia, and long-term inhalation of irritant gases can cause chronic respiratory tract inflammation, including rhinitis, perforation of nasal septum, pharyngitis, bronchitis and other upper respiratory tract inflammation. 1nhalation of large amounts of irritant gases can cause severe respiratory diseases, such as chemical pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
(3) many poisons in the blood system can cause damage to the blood system. According to different toxic effects, they are often manifested as anemia, hemorrhage, hemolysis, methemoglobin and leukemia. Lead can cause hypochromic anemia, benzene, trinitrotoluene and other toxins can inhibit the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, characterized by leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, severe cases develop into aplastic anemia. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin, which causes tissue hypoxia.
(4) there are various effects of digestive system toxicants on digestive system. When a large number of mercury, arsenic and other poisons enter through the mouth, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis may occur. Lead and thallium poisoning, severe persistent abdominal colic, and oral ulcer, gum swelling, loose teeth and other symptoms. Long term inhalation of acid mist, enamel damage, shedding, known as acidosis. 1nhalation of a large amount of fluoride, brown spots appear on the teeth, dental fragility, known as dental fluorosis. Many toxic substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, bromobenzene, trinitrotoluene, cause acute or chronic liver diseases.
(5) mercury, uranium, hydrogen arsenide and ethylene glycol in urinary system can cause toxic nephropathy. Such as acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome and renal tubular syndrome.
(6) other productive poisons can also cause skin, eye and bone lesions. Many chemicals can cause contact dermatitis and folliculitis. Workers exposed to chromium and beryllium are prone to skin ulcers. For example, long-term exposure to tar, asphalt and arsenic can cause skin melanosis and even induce skin cancer. Acid, alkali and other corrosive chemicals can cause irritating ophthalmitis, severe cases can cause chemical burns, methyl bromide, organic mercury, methanol poisoning, optic atrophy, and even blindness. Some industrial poisons can also induce cataract
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