Do you know what labor insurance supplies are available? Labor protection supplies can be divided into five categories: head protection supplies, respiratory protection supplies, eye and face protection supplies, hearing protection supplies, and hand protection supplies. Do you know how to use protective equipment and common sense? The following is a detailed explanation of the knowledge of labor insurance products for you. [Labor protection products] What are the methods and common sense of labor protection products?
1. Head protection products and their common sense
Head protection products are used to protect the head from foreign objects. Personal protective equipment equipped with other factors harmful. According to the requirements of protective functions, there are currently nine types of products including general protective caps, dust caps, waterproof caps, cold caps, safety caps, anti-static caps, high temperature caps, electromagnetic radiation caps, and insect caps.
In work-related injuries and traffic fatal accidents, head injuries accounted for the highest proportion of deaths, accounting for about 35.5% of the total deaths, of which the deaths caused by falling objects were the first, followed by traffic accidents. The use of safety helmets can avoid or reduce the above-mentioned injuries.
(1) Types of safety helmets
The helmet that protects the human head from external force is a safety helmet, which consists of a cap shell, a cap lining, a chin strap, and a rear hoop. Safety helmets are divided into six categories: general-purpose, passenger vehicle, special helmets, military helmets, military protective caps and athlete protective caps. Among them, general-purpose and special-type helmets belong to labor protection products.
1. Universal helmet
Picture of helmet
This type of hat has two types: top-proof, top-proof and side impact-proof. It has puncture resistance and is used in construction and transportation industries. General-purpose helmets used in places with fire sources are flame-resistant.
2. Special type safety helmet
(1) Electrical safety helmet. The insulation performance of the cap shell is very good, and it is used more in electrical installation, high voltage operation and other industries.
(2) Anti-static safety helmet. Antistatic agent is added to the cap shell and cap lining material, which is used in places with flammable gas or steam and other explosive materials. It refers to Zone 0 and Zone 1 stipulated in the Electrical Safety Regulations for Explosive Hazardous Locations. The combustion energy is above 0.2mJ.
(3) Cold-proof helmet. Good low-temperature properties, use cotton, fur and other warm materials as fabrics, and use it in an environment where the temperature is not lower than -20¡ãC.
(4) High temperature and radiant heat resistant safety helmet. It has good thermal and chemical stability and is used in places with radiant heat sources such as fire fighting and smelting.
(5) Anti-side pressure safety helmet. High mechanical strength, bending resistance, used in forestry, underground engineering, underground coal mining and other industries.
(6) Safety helmet with attachments. In order to meet a certain use requirement, a helmet with accessories.
(2) The use of helmets
According to statistics from relevant departments, 15% of the people injured by falling objects are caused by improper use of helmets. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that wearing a helmet can protect the head from impact damage. In actual work, the following points should also be understood and achieved:
(1) Anyone who enters the production site or engages in production and labor in or outside the factory must wear a safety helmet (except for special regulations of the country or industry; special Work or labor, after taking measures to ensure that the head is not injured and approved by the safety supervision department).
(2) When wearing a helmet, the helmet strap must be fastened to ensure that it does not fall off under various conditions; the brim of the helmet must be in the same direction as the eye, and must not be worn crookedly or diagonally.
(3) It is forbidden to disassemble the parts on the cap and adjust the size of the cap lining to keep the vertical and horizontal distances in line with the relevant specified values ??to prevent personal injury caused by topping after impact.
(4) It is strictly forbidden to put any objects on the cap lining. It is strictly forbidden to change any mechanism of the helmet at will. It is strictly forbidden to use safety helmets as utensils. It is strictly forbidden to use a safety helmet as a cushion.
(5) Safety helmets must have instructions and specify the place of use for reasonable use by operators.
(6) Always keep the cap liner clean, and wash it with soap and water when it is not clean. After use, it can not be placed in acid, alkali, high temperature, sunlight, humidity and chemical solvents.
(7) Safety helmets that have received a large impact during use cannot continue to be used.
(8) If the cap shell and cap lining are aged or damaged, which reduces the impact resistance and penetration resistance, they must not continue to be used and replaced with new caps.
(9) Anti-static safety helmets cannot be used as safety helmets for electrical industry, so as not to cause problems. ,
(10) The plant cap is valid for one and a half years from the time of purchase. Plastic caps should not exceed two years, laminated caps and fiberglass caps for two and a half years, rubber caps and cold-proof caps for three years, and car safety helmets for three and a half years. The above-mentioned various types of safety helmets are prone to aging and lose the protective performance of the safety helmets beyond their general service life. The correct way to wear a safety helmet>>
2. Respiratory protective equipment and common sense of its use
Respiratory protective equipment is to prevent harmful gases, vapors, dust, smoke, and mist from being inhaled from the respiratory tract and directly supplied to the user Oxygen or clean air, protective equipment to ensure normal breathing of workers in dust, toxic pollution or oxygen-deficient environment.
Respiratory protection products mainly include dust respirators and respirators (face masks).
(1) Use of dust masks and face masks
Pictures of dust masks and masks
(1) In addition to dust in the workplace, there are toxic fog, smoke, gas or insufficient oxygen in the air At 18%, isolation dust-proof appliances should be used, and filter-type dust-proof appliances are prohibited.
(2) Water spraying, wet working place. The selected dust-proof appliances should be equipped with waterproof devices.
(3) For work with high labor intensity, dustproof appliances with low suction resistance should be selected. When possible, try to use air-supply masks or face masks.
(4) Before use, check whether the parts are complete. If damaged, they must be sorted or replaced in time. In addition, pay attention to check the air tightness of each connection, especially the air supply mask or mask, to see if the joints and pipelines are unblocked.
(5) Wear it correctly, adjust the straps and headband appropriately, and there should be no severe pressure on the face.
(6) The filter material of the duplex mask and the air supply mask helmet should be replaced regularly to avoid increasing resistance. The power supply of the electric ventilation mask should be sufficient and charge on time.
(7) When the main body (oronasal mask) of various masks is dirty, it can be washed with soap and water. After washing, it should be dried in a ventilated place. Avoid exposure to the sun, fire, and avoid contact with oils, organic solvents, etc.
(8) Dust-proof equipment should be dedicated for special use. After use and in the plastic bag, avoid squeezing and damage.
(9) For long-tube masks, the airway tube should be checked for leaks before use, and can only be used when it is confirmed that there are no leaks. The inlet end of the air duct must be placed in a place with fresh air, non-toxic and dust-free. The length of the air duct used should be within 10m to prevent increased ventilation resistance. When moving the work site, pay special attention not to yank or drag the air pipe, and to prevent pressure, poking, and disassembly.
(2) The use of gas masks and masks
Gas masks and masks can be divided into filter type and isolation type. Filter-type anti-virus appliances are used to filter out the toxic gas in the air through the canister and the filtering agent in the box, and then allow people to breathe. Therefore, it cannot be used when the oxygen content of the air in the working environment is less than 18%. Generally, the filtering agent can only play a protective role after determining the type, concentration, temperature and a certain working time of the poison. Therefore, filter-type gas masks and masks cannot be used for operations with serious dangers, complex and changeable site conditions, and two or more poisons; isolated anti-virus appliances rely on air ducts to send air in a non-polluting environment into the closed anti-virus appliances for supply. Operator breathing. It is used in a polluted environment with hypoxia, unknown toxic gas composition or high concentration.
(1) When using a gas mask, it is strictly forbidden to unscrew the lid of the gas filter box casually to avoid violent vibration of the gas filter box to avoid loosening of the medicine; at the same time, prevent water and other liquids from splashing on the gas filter box, or reduce the anti-virus efficacy.
(2) In the process of using the anti-virus mask, for the smelly gas, when a slight smell is smelled, it indicates the effectiveness of the filter agent in the filter box. For odorless poisonous gas, it depends on the discoloration of the indicator paper or the medicine installed in the poison box. Once the anti-virus agent is found to be ineffective, you should leave the toxic place immediately, stop using the anti-virus mask, and replace the agent before using it.
(3) When wearing a gas mask, the straps should be adjusted tightly according to the size of the head, and the two straps should be naturally separated and set behind the top of the head. Too loose and too tight can easily cause air leakage or feel uncomfortable.
(4) The gas mask should be worn correctly during use. For example, the hood must be of a suitable size, and the edge of the mask body must be close to the head. In addition, it is necessary to keep the air in the mask smooth and unobstructed to prevent the air duct from being twisted and compressed and affecting ventilation.
(5) When there is a sudden accident at the job site and poisonous gas appears and the operator cannot leave for a while, he should immediately hold his breath and quickly take out the mask and put it on; after confirming that the edge of the hood is tightly attached to the head or worn correctly , Breath out the remaining air in the mask before putting it into normal use.
(6) In the event that a part of the gas mask is damaged and cannot function normally, and it is too late to replace the mask, the user can take the following emergency treatment methods, and then quickly leave the poisonous place:
¢ÙThe hood or guide When a hole is found in the trachea, pinch it with your hand. If the air duct is damaged, the canister can also be directly connected to the hood for use, but care should be taken to prevent displacement and leakage due to the weight of the hood.
¢ÚWhen the exhalation valve is damaged, you should immediately block the outlet with your hand, and then relax your hand when you exhale and then block it when you inhale.
¢ÛWhen a small hole is found in the canister, it can be blocked with hands, clay or other materials.
(7) The gas mask after use should be cleaned, disinfected, and dried before being washed. Do not roast or expose it to the sun to prevent the material from aging. After the canister is used, the top cover and bottom stopper should be covered and blocked respectively to prevent the canister from becoming damp and failing. The invalid canister should be scrapped or replaced with a new canister and regenerated.
(8) For gas masks that are not used for a while, sprinkle talcum powder evenly on the rubber parts to prevent adhesion. The spare mask on site should be placed in a special cabinet and maintained regularly and pay attention to moisture-proof.
(Èý)The use of oxygen respirator
Oxygen respirator is a gas mask that is isolated from outside air and supplies oxygen by itself. Note during use:
(1) Check thoroughly before use and confirm that the following requirements are met before use:
¢Ù The oxygen pressure in the oxygen cylinder should be kept above 980N/cm2.
¢ÚThe calcium hydroxide absorbent filled in the cleaning tank should be pink cylindrical particles. If it becomes light yellow, it is invalid and should be replaced in time.
¢ÛPay attention to whether the sealing gaskets are complete, the degree of engagement, whether the valve is in good condition, whether the automatic exhaust valve is working normally, and whether the manual oxygen supply is effective.
(2) When using, first open the oxygen cylinder valve, check the value of the pressure gauge, and estimate the use time. Then press the replenishment button several times to clear the original accumulated gas in the airbag. Put on the hood again and check the tightness between the edge of the body and the head. After confirming that the parts are normal, it can be used.
(3) During use, if you feel that the air supply is insufficient, you can use deep breathing to fill the automatic replenisher with oxygen. If you still have difficulty breathing, you should use the manual button to replenish oxygen. When the above measures are ineffective, you should immediately exit the poisoned place.
(4) During use, always check the indicating value of the pressure gauge. Once the oxygen pressure drops to 245~296N/cm2, leave the toxic place in time.
(5) Take care to avoid contact with combustible materials such as oil, and keep a sufficient safe distance from the fire source.
(6) Prevent the oxygen breathing apparatus from hitting and falling to avoid damage to the parts.
(7) Two persons must work in a team to take care of each other for dangerous operations and entering the scene of an accident for rescue.
(8) After using the oxygen respirator, the professional should be notified for inspection in time, and the hood cleaning, disinfection, oxygen cylinder inflation and replacement of the calcium hydroxide in the cleaning tank should be carried out in order to be used at any time.
(9) If it is left unused for a long time, the calcium hydroxide in the cleaning tank should be poured out. All rubber parts should be coated with talcum powder to prevent adhesion. The oxygen cylinder should retain a certain residual pressure.
3. Eye and face protective equipment and its common sense of use
Personal protective equipment that prevents smoke, dust particles, metal sparks and flying debris, heat, electromagnetic radiation, lasers, chemical splashes and other damage to the eyes or face is called eye and face Protective Equipment.
There are many types of eye and face protection products. According to their protective functions, they can be roughly divided into nine categories: dustproof, waterproof, shockproof, high temperature, electromagnetic radiation, radiation, chemical splash, sand and glare.
(1) Use of welding glasses and face shields
Picture of welding protective glasses
According to statistics, electro-optic ophthalmia is more common in welding operations of industrial and mining enterprises. The main reason is that the selected protective glasses are not Suitable. Therefore, the relevant operators should master the following basic methods of using protective glasses:
(1) The glasses and masks used must be inspected by the relevant departments.
(2) Choose and wear appropriate glasses and masks to prevent falling off and shaking during operation, which will affect the effect of use.
(3) The frame of the glasses must match the face to avoid light leakage from the side. If necessary, use glasses with eye protection or side-light protection.
(4) Prevent the mask and glasses from being damp and compressed to avoid deformation, damage or light leakage. The welding mask should be insulated to prevent electric shock.
(5) When working with face-shield goggles, replace the protective sheet at least once for a total of 8 hours. When the filter of the protective glasses is damaged by splashes, replace it in time.
(6) When the protective film and the filter are used in combination, the refractive power of the lens must be the same.
(7) For air-supply welding masks with dust and gas masks, they should be maintained and used in strict accordance with relevant regulations.
(8) When the lens of the mask is covered by the humid smoke of the working environment and the moisture exhaled by the operator, causing water mist to appear, which affects the operation, the following measures can be taken to solve the problem:
¢ÙWater film diffusion method . Apply fatty acid or silica gel anti-fogging agent on the lens to spread water mist evenly.
¢ÚWater absorption elimination method. Surfactant (PC resin series) is dip-coated on the lens to absorb the attached water mist.
¢ÛVacuum method. For some masks with double-glazed window structure, a vacuum can be taken between the double-glazing.
(2) Use of anti-electromagnetic radiation eyewear
Electromagnetic radiation is invisible, inaudible, and intangible. However, microwaves of certain frequencies can produce a warm feeling. There is a long incubation period when a certain part of the body is uncomfortable after being exposed to radiation. When discovered, it has often caused undesirable consequences. Therefore, the protection of electromagnetic radiation cannot be taken lightly.
(1) First determine the area where the radiation field strength exceeds the maximum allowable microwave radiation at the work site, and put up a warning sign. When workers enter this area, they must wear shielding clothing and anti-microwave glasses.
(2) In actual work, shielding clothing and glasses should be selected according to the working frequency of the radiation source and the radiation intensity of the working place.
(3) Try to use anti-microwave glasses with eye shields to prevent the diffraction of microwaves from adversely affecting the eyes.
(4) Avoid contact with grease, acid, alkali or other dirty substances during use, so as not to affect the shielding effect.
(5) In addition to the above, taking measures such as not looking directly at any radiating device (energy-feeding horn, open waveguide, reflector), as far as possible from the radiation source, shielding the field source, etc., can also effectively avoid electromagnetic radiation .
Four. Hearing organ protective equipment
Personal protective equipment that can prevent excessive sound energy from invading the external auditory canal, so that the human ear can avoid excessive noise stimulation, reduce hearing loss, and prevent the adverse effects of noise on the human body, called hearing Organ protective equipment. Hearing organ protection products mainly include earplugs, earmuffs and noise-proof helmets.
Using method of hearing protection equipment:
Picture of soundproof earplugs
(1) When wearing earplugs, first lift the auricle up to make the external auditory meatus straight, and then hold the plug handle to gently place the plug cap Push into the external ear canal to fit the ear canal.
(2) Don’t push too hard or plug too deep, so that it feels moderate. If the sound insulation is not good, you can slowly rotate the earplugs to the best position; if the sound insulation is still not good, you should change to other specifications Earplugs.
(3) When using earplugs and anti-noise helmets, check the casing for cracks and air leakage. When wearing it, pay attention to the markings of the shell and wear it along the ear shape, and make sure that the soft gasket of the earmuff fits the surrounding skin.
(4) Before using ear protectors, use a sound level meter to quantitatively measure the noise in the workplace, and then calculate the sound level to be attenuated to select ear protectors of various specifications.
(5) The use effect of anti-noise ear protectors not only depends on the quality of these products, but also requires the user to develop the habit of patient use and master the correct way to wear them. If only one type of ear protector is not good for sound insulation, you can also wear two ear protectors at the same time, such as earplugs in the earmuffs.
V. Hand protection products
Labor protection gloves picture
It has the function of protecting hands and arms. The gloves worn by the operator during work are called hand protection products, usually people called labor protection gloves .
Hand protection products are divided into twelve categories according to their protective functions, namely general protective gloves, waterproof gloves, cold-proof gloves, anti-virus gloves, anti-static gloves, high-temperature gloves, anti-X-ray gloves, anti-acid and alkali gloves, and anti-oil Gloves, anti-vibration gloves, anti-cutting gloves, insulating gloves. Each type of gloves can be divided into many types according to the material.
How to use protective gloves:
(1) First of all, you should understand the protective effects and use requirements of different types of gloves, so that you can choose them correctly during operation. Do not use gloves for general occasions as some special gloves. For example, cotton gloves and chemical fiber gloves are used as anti-vibration gloves, but the effect is very poor.
(2) Before using insulated gloves, check the appearance. If there are holes or cracks on the surface, stop using them.
After using the insulated gloves, keep them in accordance with relevant regulations to prevent degradation of insulation performance caused by aging. It should be re-inspected after a period of use, and it can be used only after it is qualified. Pay attention to the product classification color code when using it, like 1kV gloves for red, 7.5kV for white, and 17kV for yellow.
(3) When working with vibration tools, it is not safe to wear anti-vibration gloves. It should be noted that a certain period of rest should be arranged during work. As the vibration frequency of the tool itself increases, the rest time can be extended accordingly. For the various vibration tools used, it is best to measure the vibration acceleration in order to select suitable anti-vibration gloves to achieve better protection effects.
(4) In some occasions, all gloves should be of appropriate size to prevent the gloves from being too long, being twisted or rolled up by machinery, and causing hand injuries.
(5) Vibration-proof gloves can be used when operating high-speed rotating machinery. Oil-proof gloves should be used for certain maintenance equipment and oil filling operations to avoid oil opponents.
(6) Different types of gloves have their specific purpose performance. In actual work, they must be properly used and distinguished in accordance with the operating conditions to protect the safety of hands.